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A review on plasma-based CO2 utilization: process considerations in the development of sustainable chemical production 等离子体二氧化碳利用综述:开发可持续化学品生产的工艺考虑因素
Pub Date : 2024-08-31 DOI: 10.1088/2058-6272/ad52c4
Sirui LI, Giulia De FELICE, Simona EICHKORN, Tao SHAO and Fausto GALLUCCI
Plasma-based processes, particularly in carbon capture and utilization, hold great potential for addressing environmental challenges and advancing a circular carbon economy. While significant progress has been made in understanding plasma-induced reactions, plasma-catalyst interactions, and reactor development to enhance energy efficiency and conversion, there remains a notable gap in research concerning overall process development. This review emphasizes the critical need for considerations at the process level, including integration and intensification, to facilitate the industrialization of plasma technology for chemical production. Discussions centered on the development of plasma-based processes are made with a primary focus on CO2 conversion, offering insights to guide future work for the transition of the technology from laboratory scale to industrial applications. Identification of current research gaps, especially in upscaling and integrating plasma reactors with other process units, is the key to addressing critical issues. The review further delves into relevant research in process evaluation and assessment, providing methodological insights and highlighting key factors for comprehensive economic and sustainability analyses. Additionally, recent advancements in novel plasma systems are reviewed, presenting unique advantages and innovative concepts that could reshape the future of process development. This review provides essential information for navigating the path forward, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of challenges and opportunities in the development of plasma-based CCU process.
基于等离子体的工艺,特别是碳捕获和利用工艺,在应对环境挑战和推动循环碳经济方面具有巨大潜力。虽然在了解等离子体诱导反应、等离子体与催化剂的相互作用以及反应器开发以提高能源效率和转化率方面取得了重大进展,但有关整体工艺开发的研究仍存在明显差距。本综述强调了在工艺层面(包括集成和强化)进行考虑的关键需求,以促进用于化工生产的等离子体技术的工业化。本综述以等离子体工艺的开发为中心进行讨论,主要关注二氧化碳的转化,为指导今后的工作提供见解,以便将该技术从实验室规模过渡到工业应用。找出当前的研究差距,特别是在等离子体反应器升级和与其他工艺单元集成方面的差距,是解决关键问题的关键。本综述进一步深入探讨了工艺评价和评估方面的相关研究,提供了方法论见解,并强调了全面经济和可持续性分析的关键因素。此外,还对新型等离子体系统的最新进展进行了综述,介绍了可重塑未来工艺开发的独特优势和创新理念。本综述提供了导航前进道路的基本信息,确保全面了解基于等离子体的 CCU 工艺开发过程中的挑战和机遇。
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引用次数: 0
Impurity modes in two-dimensional strongly coupled complex plasma crystals 二维强耦合复杂等离子晶体中的杂质模式
Pub Date : 2024-07-31 DOI: 10.1088/2058-6272/ad44ef
Shijie WU, 诗杰 吴, Yunqiao XU, 韵乔 徐, Shunyu XIAN, 顺宇 冼, Xianglei HE, 向磊 何, Xiaoyi YANG and 肖易 杨
Complex plasma fluctuation processes have been extensively studied in many aspects, especially lattice waves in strongly coupled plasma crystals, which are of great significance for understanding fundamental physical phenomena. A challenge of experimental investigations in two-dimensional strongly coupled complex plasma crystals is to keep the main body and foreign particles of different masses on the same horizontal plane. To solve the problem, we have proposed a potential well formed by two negatively biased grids to bind the negatively charged particles in a two-dimensional (2D) plane, thus achieving a 2D plasma crystal in the microgravity environment. The study of such phenomena in complex plasma crystals under microgravity environment then becomes possible. In this paper, we focus on the continuum spectrum, including both phonon and optic branches of the impurity mode in a 2D system in microgravity environments. The results show the dispersion relation of the longitudinal and transverse impurity oscillation modes and their properties. Considering the macroscopic visibility of complex mesoscopic particle lattices, theoretical and experimental studies on this kind of complex plasma systems will help us further understand the physical nature of a wide range of condensed matters.
复杂等离子体的波动过程在许多方面都得到了广泛的研究,特别是强耦合等离子体晶体中的晶格波,它对理解基本物理现象具有重要意义。在二维强耦合复杂等离子体晶体中进行实验研究的一个难题是如何使主体和不同质量的外来粒子保持在同一水平面上。为了解决这个问题,我们提出了一个由两个负偏网格形成的势阱,将带负电的粒子束缚在一个二维(2D)平面上,从而实现了微重力环境下的二维等离子体晶体。因此,研究微重力环境下复杂等离子晶体中的此类现象成为可能。本文重点研究了微重力环境下二维系统中杂质模式的连续谱,包括声子和光学分支。结果显示了纵向和横向杂质振荡模式的色散关系及其特性。考虑到复杂介观粒子晶格的宏观可见性,对这类复杂等离子体系统的理论和实验研究将有助于我们进一步了解各种凝聚态物质的物理本质。
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引用次数: 0
Abnormal transition of the electron energy distribution with excitation of the second harmonic in low-pressure radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas 低压射频电容耦合等离子体中电子能量分布的异常转变与二次谐波激发
Pub Date : 2024-07-31 DOI: 10.1088/2058-6272/ad4596
Leyi YU, 乐怡 余, Wenqi LU, 文琪 陆, Lina ZHANG and 丽娜 张
The self-excited second harmonic in radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma was significantly enhanced by adjusting the external variable capacitor. At a lower pressure of 3 Pa, the excitation of the second harmonic caused an abnormal transition of the electron energy probability function, resulting in abrupt changes in the electron density and temperature. Such changes in the electron energy probability function as well as the electron density and temperature were not observed at the higher pressure of 16 Pa under similar harmonic changes. The phenomena are related to the influence of the second harmonic on stochastic heating, which is determined by both amplitude and the relative phase of the harmonics. The results suggest that the self-excited high-order harmonics must be considered in practical applications of low-pressure radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas.
通过调节外部可变电容器,射频电容耦合等离子体中的自激二次谐波显著增强。在 3 Pa 的较低压力下,二次谐波的激发引起了电子能量概率函数的异常转变,导致电子密度和温度的突然变化。而在 16 Pa 的较高压力下,在类似的谐波变化下,电子能量概率函数以及电子密度和温度都没有出现这种变化。这些现象与二次谐波对随机加热的影响有关,而随机加热是由谐波的振幅和相对相位决定的。结果表明,在低压射频电容耦合等离子体的实际应用中,必须考虑自激高阶谐波。
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引用次数: 0
Investigation of an electrode-driven hydrogen plasma method for in situ cleaning of tin-based contamination 研究一种用于原位清洁锡基污染物的电极驱动氢等离子体方法
Pub Date : 2024-07-31 DOI: 10.1088/2058-6272/ad4433
Yichao PENG, 怡超 彭, Zongbiao YE, 宗标 叶, Sishu WANG, 思蜀 王, Guo PU, 国 蒲, Xianyang LIU, 显洋 刘, Congcong YUAN, 聪聪 苑, Jiashu LIAO, 加术 廖, Jianjun WEI, 建军 韦, Xingang YU, 新刚 余, Fujun GOU and 富均 芶
To prolong the service life of optics, the feasibility of in situ cleaning of the multilayer mirror (MLM) of tin and its oxidized contamination was investigated using hydrogen plasma at different power levels. Granular tin-based contamination consisting of micro- and macroparticles was deposited on silicon via physical vapor deposition (PVD). The electrode-driven hydrogen plasma at different power levels was systematically diagnosed using a Langmuir probe and a retarding field ion energy analyzer (RFEA). Moreover, the magnitude of the self-biasing voltage was measured at different power levels, and the peak ion energy was corrected for the difference between the RFEA measurements and the self-biasing voltage ( ). XPS analysis of O 1s and Sn 3d peaks demonstrated the chemical reduction process after 1 W cleaning. Analysis of surface and cross-section morphology revealed that holes emerged on the upper part of the macroparticles while its bottom remained smooth. Hills and folds appeared on the upper part of the microparticles, confirming the top-down cleaning mode with hydrogen plasma. This study provides an in situ electrode-driven hydrogen plasma etching process for tin-based contamination and will provide meaningful guidance for understanding the chemical mechanism of reduction and etching.
为了延长光学器件的使用寿命,研究人员使用不同功率水平的氢等离子体对多层反射镜(MLM)上的锡及其氧化污染物进行了原位清洁。由微颗粒和大颗粒组成的颗粒状锡基污染物通过物理气相沉积(PVD)沉积在硅上。使用朗缪尔探针和阻滞场离子能量分析仪(RFEA)对不同功率水平下的电驱动氢等离子体进行了系统诊断。此外,还测量了不同功率水平下自偏压的大小,并根据 RFEA 测量值与自偏压 ( ) 之间的差值修正了离子峰值能量。O 1s 和 Sn 3d 峰的 XPS 分析表明了 1 W 清洁后的化学还原过程。对表面和横截面形态的分析表明,大颗粒的上部出现了孔洞,而底部则保持光滑。微颗粒的上部出现了丘陵和褶皱,证实了氢等离子体自上而下的清洗模式。这项研究提供了一种针对锡基污染的原位电极驱动氢等离子体蚀刻工艺,并将为理解还原和蚀刻的化学机制提供有意义的指导。
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引用次数: 0
Real-time data processing method for CO2 dispersion interferometer on EAST EAST 上二氧化碳色散干涉仪的实时数据处理方法
Pub Date : 2024-07-31 DOI: 10.1088/2058-6272/ad4597
Jiamin ZHANG, 家敏 张, Yuan YAO, 远 姚, Yuyang LIU, 郁阳 刘, Yuqi CHU, 宇奇 储, Tianyi RUAN, 天翼 阮, Yao ZHANG, 耀 张, Haiqing LIU, 海庆 刘, Yinxian JIE, 银先 揭, Bili LING and 必利 凌
A real-time data processing system is designed for the carbon dioxide dispersion interferometer (CO2-DI) on EAST. The system utilizes the parallel and pipelining capabilities of an field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to digitize and process the intensity of signals from the detector. Finally, the real-time electron density signals are exported through a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) module in the form of analog signals. The system has been successfully applied in the CO2-DI system to provide low-latency electron density input to the plasma control system on EAST. Experimental results of the latest campaign with long-pulse discharges on EAST (2022–2023) demonstrate that the system can respond effectively in the case of rapid density changes, proving its reliability and accuracy for future electron density calculation.
为 EAST 上的二氧化碳色散干涉仪(CO2-DI)设计了一个实时数据处理系统。该系统利用现场可编程门阵列(FPGA)的并行和流水线功能,对来自探测器的信号强度进行数字化和处理。最后,实时电子密度信号通过数模转换器(DAC)模块以模拟信号的形式输出。该系统已成功应用于 CO2-DI 系统,为 EAST 上的等离子体控制系统提供低延迟电子密度输入。最近在EAST上进行的长脉冲放电活动(2022-2023年)的实验结果表明,该系统能够在密度快速变化的情况下做出有效响应,证明了其在未来电子密度计算中的可靠性和准确性。
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引用次数: 0
Ptycho-endoscopy on a lensless ultrathin fiber bundle tip 无镜头超细纤维束尖端的乳房内窥镜检查
Q1 OPTICS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1038/s41377-024-01510-5
Pengming Song, Ruihai Wang, Lars Loetgering, Jia Liu, Peter Vouras, Yujin Lee, Shaowei Jiang, Bin Feng, Andrew Maiden, Changhuei Yang, Guoan Zheng

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) utilizes an aircraft-carried antenna to emit electromagnetic pulses and detect the returning echoes. As the aircraft travels across a designated area, it synthesizes a large virtual aperture to improve image resolution. Inspired by SAR, we introduce synthetic aperture ptycho-endoscopy (SAPE) for micro-endoscopic imaging beyond the diffraction limit. SAPE operates by hand-holding a lensless fiber bundle tip to record coherent diffraction patterns from specimens. The fiber cores at the distal tip modulate the diffracted wavefield within a confined area, emulating the role of the ‘airborne antenna’ in SAR. The handheld operation introduces positional shifts to the tip, analogous to the aircraft’s movement. These shifts facilitate the acquisition of a ptychogram and synthesize a large virtual aperture extending beyond the bundle’s physical limit. We mitigate the influences of hand motion and fiber bending through a low-rank spatiotemporal decomposition of the bundle’s modulation profile. Our tests demonstrate the ability to resolve a 548-nm linewidth on a resolution target. The achieved space-bandwidth product is ~1.1 million effective pixels, representing a 36-fold increase compared to that of the original fiber bundle. Furthermore, SAPE’s refocusing capability enables imaging over an extended depth of field exceeding 2 cm. The aperture synthesizing process in SAPE surpasses the diffraction limit set by the probe’s maximum collection angle, opening new opportunities for both fiber-based and distal-chip endoscopy in applications such as medical diagnostics and industrial inspection.

合成孔径雷达(SAR)利用飞机携带的天线发射电磁脉冲并探测返回的回波。当飞机穿越指定区域时,会合成一个大的虚拟孔径,以提高图像分辨率。受合成孔径雷达的启发,我们引入了合成孔径内窥镜(SAPE),用于超越衍射极限的微型内窥镜成像。SAPE 通过手持无镜头光纤束尖端来记录标本的相干衍射图样。远端顶端的光纤芯在一个限定区域内调制衍射波场,模拟合成孔径雷达中 "机载天线 "的作用。手持式操作会给尖端带来位置偏移,类似于飞机的移动。这些偏移有助于获取分层图,并合成一个超出波束物理极限的大虚拟孔径。我们通过对纤维束的调制曲线进行低阶时空分解,减轻了手部运动和纤维弯曲的影响。我们的测试证明了在分辨率目标上分辨 548 纳米线宽的能力。实现的空间-带宽乘积约为 110 万有效像素,与原始光纤束相比增加了 36 倍。此外,SAPE 的再聚焦功能还能在超过 2 厘米的扩展景深上成像。SAPE 的孔径合成过程超越了探头最大收集角所设定的衍射极限,为医疗诊断和工业检测等应用中的光纤内窥镜和远端芯片内窥镜带来了新的机遇。
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引用次数: 0
Electrically tunable third-harmonic generation using intersubband polaritonic metasurfaces 利用带间偏振元表面产生电可调三次谐波
Q1 OPTICS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1038/s41377-024-01517-y
Seongjin Park, Jaeyeon Yu, Gerhard Boehm, Mikhail A. Belkin, Jongwon Lee

Nonlinear intersubband polaritonic metasurfaces, which integrate giant nonlinear responses derived from intersubband transitions of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) with plasmonic nanoresonators, not only facilitate efficient frequency conversion at pump intensities on the order of few tens of kW cm-2 but also enable electrical modulation of nonlinear responses at the individual meta-atom level and dynamic beam manipulation. The electrical modulation characteristics of the magnitude and phase of the nonlinear optical response are realized through Stark tuning of the resonant intersubband nonlinearity. In this study, we report, for the first time, experimental implementations of electrical modulation characteristics of mid-infrared third-harmonic generation (THG) using an intersubband polaritonic metasurface based on MQW with electrically tunable third-order nonlinear response. Experimentally, we achieved a 450% modulation depth of the THG signal, 86% suppression of zero-order THG diffraction tuning based on local phase tuning exceeding 180 degrees, and THG beam steering using phase gradients. Our work proposes a new route for electrically tunable flat nonlinear optical elements with versatile functionalities.

非线性带间偏振元表面将多个量子阱(MQW)的带间跃迁产生的巨大非线性响应与等离子纳米谐振器整合在一起,不仅有助于在几十千瓦厘米-2 的泵浦强度下实现高效频率转换,还能在单个元原子水平上对非线性响应进行电调制,并实现动态光束操纵。非线性光学响应的幅度和相位的电调制特性是通过共振带间非线性的斯塔克调谐来实现的。在本研究中,我们首次报告了利用基于 MQW 的带间偏振元表面(具有电可调三阶非线性响应)实现中红外三次谐波发生(THG)电调制特性的实验。在实验中,我们实现了 450% 的 THG 信号调制深度、86% 的零阶 THG 衍射调谐抑制(基于超过 180 度的局部相位调谐)以及使用相位梯度的 THG 波束转向。我们的工作为具有多种功能的电可调平面非线性光学元件提出了一条新的途径。
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引用次数: 0
Pulse-doubling perovskite nanowire lasers enabled by phonon-assisted multistep energy funneling 利用声子辅助多步能量漏斗技术实现脉冲倍增的过氧化物纳米线激光器
Q1 OPTICS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1038/s41377-024-01494-2
Chunhu Zhao, Jia Guo, Jiahua Tao, Junhao Chu, Shaoqiang Chen, Guichuan Xing

Laser pulse multiplication from an optical gain medium has shown great potential in miniaturizing integrated optoelectronic devices. Perovskite multiple quantum wells (MQWs) structures have recently been recognized as an effective gain media capable of doubling laser pulses that do not rely on external optical equipment. Although the light amplifications enabled with pulse doubling are reported based on the perovskite MQWs thin films, the micro-nanolasers possessed a specific cavity for laser pulse multiplication and their corresponding intrinsic laser dynamics are still inadequate. Herein, a single-mode double-pulsed nanolaser from self-assembled perovskite MQWs nanowires is realized, exhibiting a pulse duration of 28 ps and pulse interval of 22 ps based on single femtosecond laser pulse excitation. It is established that the continuous energy building up within a certain timescale is essential for the multiple population inversion in the gain medium, which arises from the slowing carrier localization process owning to the stronger exciton–phonon coupling in the smaller-n QWs. Therefore, the double-pulsed lasing is achieved from one fast energy funnel process from the adjacent small-n QWs to gain active region and another slow process from the spatially separated ones. This report may shed new light on the intrinsic energy relaxation mechanism and boost the further development of perovskite multiple-pulse lasers.

来自光学增益介质的激光脉冲倍增技术在集成光电设备微型化方面显示出巨大的潜力。最近,人们认识到包晶多量子阱(MQWs)结构是一种有效的增益介质,能够使激光脉冲倍增,而无需依赖外部光学设备。虽然基于包晶多量子阱薄膜实现脉冲倍增的光放大技术已有报道,但拥有特定腔体用于激光脉冲倍增的微型激光器及其相应的内在激光动力学仍然不足。本文利用自组装的包晶MQWs纳米线实现了单模双脉冲纳米激光器,在单飞秒激光脉冲激励下,脉冲持续时间为28 ps,脉冲间隔为22 ps。研究证实,在一定时间尺度内持续积累能量对于增益介质中的多重种群反转至关重要,而增益介质中的多重种群反转则源于小n QW 中激子-声子耦合较强导致载流子定位过程减慢。因此,从相邻的小 n QW 到增益有源区的一个快速能量漏斗过程和从空间上分离的小 n QW 到增益有源区的另一个慢速过程实现了双脉冲激光。该报告可能会为本征能量弛豫机制带来新的启示,并推动包晶多脉冲激光器的进一步发展。
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引用次数: 0
Topologically protected entanglement switching around exceptional points 围绕例外点的拓扑保护纠缠切换
Q1 OPTICS Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1038/s41377-024-01514-1
Zan Tang, Tian Chen, Xing Tang, Xiangdong Zhang

The robust operation of quantum entanglement states is crucial for applications in quantum information, computing, and communications1,2,3. However, it has always been a great challenge to complete such a task because of decoherence and disorder. Here, we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an effective scheme to realize robust operation of quantum entanglement states by designing quadruple degeneracy exceptional points. By encircling the exceptional points on two overlapping Riemann energy surfaces, we have realized a chiral switch for entangled states with high fidelity. Owing to the topological protection conferred by the Riemann surface structure, this switching of chirality exhibits strong robustness against perturbations in the encircling path. Furthermore, we have experimentally validated such a scheme on a quantum walk platform. Our work opens up a new way for the application of non-Hermitian physics in the field of quantum information.

量子纠缠态的稳健运行对于量子信息、计算和通信领域的应用至关重要1,2,3。然而,由于退相干和无序,完成这样的任务一直是一个巨大的挑战。在这里,我们从理论上提出并通过实验证明了一种有效的方案,即通过设计四重退化例外点来实现量子纠缠态的稳健运行。通过在两个重叠的黎曼能面上环绕例外点,我们实现了高保真纠缠态的手性开关。由于黎曼曲面结构所提供的拓扑保护,这种手性开关对环绕路径的扰动具有很强的鲁棒性。此外,我们还在量子行走平台上对这种方案进行了实验验证。我们的工作为非赫米提物理学在量子信息领域的应用开辟了一条新路。
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引用次数: 0
Outside Back Cover 封底外侧
IF 9.1 Q1 ENGINEERING, CHEMICAL Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1016/S2666-9528(24)00028-1
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引用次数: 0
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