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Editorial: plant-microbial symbiosis toward sustainable food security. 社论:植物与微生物共生,实现可持续粮食安全。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-01-05 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2023.2298054
Ixchel Campos-Avelar, Amelia C Montoya-Martínez, Fannie I Parra-Cota, Sergio de Los Santos-Villalobos

The use of plant-associated microorganisms is increasingly being investigated as a key tool for mitigating the impact of biotic and abiotic threats to crops and facilitating migration to sustainable agricultural practices. The microbiome is responsible for several functions in agroecosystems, such as the transformation of organic matter, nutrient cycling, and plant/pathogen growth regulation. As climate change and global warming are altering the dynamics of plant-microbial interactions in the ecosystem, it has become essential to perform comprehensive studies to decipher current and future microbial interactions, as their useful symbiotic mechanisms could be better exploited to achieve sustainable agriculture. This will allow for the development of effective microbial inoculants that facilitate nutrient supply for the plant at its minimal energy expense, thus increasing its resilience to biotic and abiotic stresses. This article collection aims to compile state-of-the-art research focused on the elucidation and optimization of symbiotic relationships between crops and their associated microbes. The information presented here will contribute to the development of next-generation microbial inoculants for achieving a more sustainable agriculture.

人们正越来越多地研究如何利用与植物相关的微生物,将其作为减轻生物和非生物威胁对作物的影响以及促进向可持续农业实践转变的重要工具。微生物群在农业生态系统中发挥着多种功能,如有机物转化、养分循环和植物/病原体生长调节。由于气候变化和全球变暖正在改变生态系统中植物与微生物相互作用的动态,因此有必要开展全面研究,破解当前和未来的微生物相互作用,因为可以更好地利用其有用的共生机制来实现可持续农业。这将有助于开发有效的微生物接种剂,以最小的能量消耗促进植物的营养供应,从而提高植物对生物和非生物压力的适应能力。本论文集旨在汇集有关阐明和优化作物与其相关微生物之间共生关系的最新研究成果。这里提供的信息将有助于开发下一代微生物接种剂,从而实现更可持续的农业发展。
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引用次数: 0
Resilience of Primary Health Care in Ukraine: Challenges of the Pandemic and War. 乌克兰初级卫生保健的复原力:大流行病和战争的挑战。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-14 DOI: 10.1080/23288604.2024.2352885
Elina Dale, Julia Novak, Denys Dmytriiev, Olga Demeshko, Jarno Habicht

This commentary examines the resilience of primary health care in Ukraine amidst the ongoing war, drawing a few reflections relevant for other fragile and conflict-affected situations. Using personal observations and various published and unpublished reports, this article outlines five reflections on the strengths, challenges, and necessary adaptations of Primary Health Care (PHC) in Ukraine. It underscores the concerted efforts of the government to maintain public financing of PHC, thereby averting system collapse. The research also highlights the role of strategic adaptations during the COVID-19 pandemic in fostering resilience during the war, including the widespread use of digital communication and skills training. The commentary emphasizes the role of managerial and financial autonomy in facilitating quick and efficient organizational response to crisis. It also recognizes emerging challenges, including better access to PHC services among the internally displaced persons, shifting patient profiles and service needs, and challenges related to reliance on local government financing. Finally, the authors advocate for a coordinated approach in humanitarian response, recovery efforts, and development programs to ensure the sustainability and effectiveness of PHC in Ukraine.

这篇评论探讨了乌克兰初级卫生保健在持续战争中的恢复能力,并提出了一些与其他脆弱和受冲突影响局势相关的思考。通过个人观察以及各种已发表和未发表的报告,本文概述了对乌克兰初级卫生保健(PHC)的优势、挑战和必要调整的五点思考。文章强调了政府为维持初级卫生保健的公共筹资所做的共同努力,从而避免了系统的崩溃。研究还强调了在 COVID-19 大流行期间,战略调整在促进战争期间复原力方面的作用,包括广泛使用数字通信和技能培训。评论强调了管理和财务自主权在促进组织快速高效地应对危机方面的作用。评论还认识到了新出现的挑战,包括境内流离失所者更容易获得初级保健服务、病人情况和服务需求的变化以及与依赖地方政府融资有关的挑战。最后,作者主张在人道主义响应、恢复工作和发展计划中采用协调的方法,以确保乌克兰初级保健服务的可持续性和有效性。
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引用次数: 0
Nitric oxide and cytokinin cross-talk and their role in plant hypoxia response. 一氧化氮和细胞分裂素的交叉作用及其在植物缺氧反应中的作用
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-03-24 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2024.2329841
Felix Lutter, Wolfram Brenner, Franziska Krajinski-Barth, Vajiheh Safavi-Rizi

Nitric oxide (NO) and cytokinins (CKs) are known for their crucial contributions to plant development, growth, senescence, and stress response. Despite the importance of both signals in stress responses, their interaction remains largely unexplored. The interplay between NO and CKs emerges as particularly significant not only regarding plant growth and development but also in addressing plant stress response, particularly in the context of extreme weather events leading to yield loss. In this review, we summarize NO and CKs metabolism and signaling. Additionally, we emphasize the crosstalk between NO and CKs, underscoring its potential impact on stress response, with a focus on hypoxia tolerance. Finally, we address the most urgent questions that demand answers and offer recommendations for future research endeavors.

众所周知,一氧化氮(NO)和细胞分裂素(CKs)对植物的发育、生长、衰老和胁迫响应有着至关重要的贡献。尽管这两种信号在胁迫响应中都很重要,但它们之间的相互作用在很大程度上仍未得到探索。NO 和 CKs 之间的相互作用不仅对植物的生长和发育具有重要意义,而且对植物的胁迫响应也具有重要意义,尤其是在极端天气事件导致减产的情况下。在这篇综述中,我们总结了 NO 和 CKs 的新陈代谢和信号转导。此外,我们还强调了 NO 和 CKs 之间的相互影响,强调了其对胁迫响应的潜在影响,重点是缺氧耐受性。最后,我们探讨了亟待解决的问题,并对未来的研究工作提出了建议。
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引用次数: 0
Association of the electrical parameters and photosynthetic characteristics of the tea tree manifests its response to simulated karst drought. 茶树的电参数与光合作用特征之间的关联体现了其对模拟喀斯特干旱的响应。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-03 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2024.2359258
Peng Wei, Haitao Li, Yanyou Wu, Cheng Zhang

Tea plantations in Karst regions suffer from the serious effects of frequent temporary karst droughts, leading to a decline in tea production and quality in the region. The close relationship between growth and electrical parameters of plants, including physiological capacitance, resistance and impedance, can be used to accurately monitor their plant water status online, quickly, accurately, timely and nondestructively. In this study, three tea tree cultivars of Zhonghuang No.2 (ZH), Wuniuzao (WNZ), and Longjing 43 (LJ) with different levels of drought resistance were selected as experimental materials, and experiments were carried out under controlled conditions according to control (soil water content of 40-45%, D0), (keeping D0 no watering to 5 days, D5), (keeping D0 no watering to 10 days, D10), (the first day after D10 is rehydrated to D0 is regarded as R1) and (the fifth day after D10 rehydration to D0 is regarded as R5), to determine intracellular water metabolism and nutrient translocation characteristics based on intrinsic electrical parameters. The photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were also determined to investigate the response of water metabolism to simulated karst drought in the three tea tree cultivars. The results indicated that the water metabolism patterns responded to environmental water changes with a medium water-holding capacity, medium water transport rate, and low water-use efficiency, and the nutrient patterns in those tea tree varieties demonstrated with a high nutrient flux per unit area, low nutrient transfer rate, and high nutrient transport capacity. After rehydration, only the electrical characteristics of WNZ returned to the D0 levels, but the net photosynthetic rate of all varieties returned to or even exceeded the D0 levels. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters could not be used to characterize the recoverability of metabolism in tea trees. The electrical characteristics quickly reflected the response of the water metabolism in plants to environmental changes, and the fusion of electrical characteristics and photosynthetic characteristics was able to more quickly, accurately, and comprehensively reflect the response of water metabolism to temporary karst drought.

喀斯特地区的茶园受到频繁的暂时性喀斯特干旱的严重影响,导致该地区茶叶产量和质量下降。植物的生长与生理电容、电阻和阻抗等电学参数关系密切,可用于在线、快速、准确、及时和无损地精确监测植物的水分状况。本研究以 "中黄 2 号"(ZH)、"乌牛"(Wuni(ZH)、乌牛早(WNZ)和龙井 43 号(LJ)三个具有不同抗旱性的茶树品种为实验材料,在对照条件下按照对照(土壤含水量为 40-45%,D0)、(保持 D0 不浇水至 5 天,D5)(D10)、(D10补水至D0后的第一天为R1)和(D10补水至D0后的第五天为R5),根据内在电参数测定细胞内水分代谢和养分转运特性。还测定了光合特性和叶绿素荧光参数,以研究三个茶树栽培品种的水分代谢对模拟岩溶干旱的响应。结果表明,这些茶树品种的水分代谢模式对环境水分变化的响应为中等持水能力、中等水分传输速率和低水分利用效率,养分模式表现为单位面积高养分通量、低养分传输速率和高养分传输能力。复水后,只有 WNZ 的电特性恢复到 D0 水平,但所有品种的净光合速率都恢复到甚至超过了 D0 水平。叶绿素荧光参数不能用来描述茶树新陈代谢的恢复能力。电特性能快速反映植物水分代谢对环境变化的响应,电特性与光合特性的融合能更快速、准确、全面地反映水分代谢对暂时性岩溶干旱的响应。
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引用次数: 0
Genome-wide identification of YABBY gene family and its expression pattern analysis in Astragalus mongholicus. 黄芪中 YABBY 基因家族的全基因组鉴定及其表达模式分析
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-05-22 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2024.2355740
Jiamei Wang, Zhen Wang, Panpan Wang, Jianhao Wu, Lingyang Kong, Lengleng Ma, Shan Jiang, Weichao Ren, Weili Liu, Yanli Guo, Wei Ma, Xiubo Liu

During plant growth and development, the YABBY gene plays a crucial role in the morphological structure, hormone signaling, stress resistance, crop breeding, and agricultural production of plant lateral organs, leaves, flowers, and fruits. Astragalus mongholicus is a perennial herbaceous plant in the legume family, widely used worldwide due to its high medicinal and edible value. However, there have been no reports of the YABBY gene family in A. mongholicus. This study used bioinformatics methods, combined with databases and analysis websites, to systematically analyze the AmYABBY gene family in the entire genome of A. mongholicus and verified its expression patterns in different tissues of A. mongholicus through transcriptome data and qRT-PCR experiments. A total of seven AmYABBY genes were identified, which can be divided into five subfamilies and distributed on three chromosomes. Two pairs of AmYABBY genes may be involved in fragment duplication on three chromosomes. All AmYABBY proteins have a zinc finger YABBY domain, and members of the same group have similar motif composition and intron - exon structure. In the promoter region of the genes, light-responsive and MeJa-response cis-elements are dominant. AmYABBY is highly expressed in stems and leaves, especially AmYABBY1, AmYABBY2, and AmYABBY3, which play important roles in the growth and development of stems and leaves. The AmYABBY gene family regulates the growth and development of A. mongholicus. In summary, this study provides a theoretical basis for in-depth research on the function of the AmYABBY gene and new insights into the molecular response mechanism of the growth and development of the traditional Chinese medicine A. mongholicus.

在植物生长发育过程中,YABBY 基因在植物侧器官、叶片、花和果实的形态结构、激素信号转导、抗逆性、作物育种和农业生产中发挥着至关重要的作用。黄芪(Astragalus mongholicus)是豆科多年生草本植物,因其具有很高的药用和食用价值而在世界各地广泛使用。然而,目前还没有关于黄芪中 YABBY 基因家族的报道。本研究利用生物信息学方法,结合数据库和分析网站,系统分析了AmYABBY基因家族在A. mongholicus全基因组中的表达,并通过转录组数据和qRT-PCR实验验证了其在A. mongholicus不同组织中的表达模式。共鉴定出7个AmYABBY基因,可分为5个亚族,分布在3条染色体上。两对 AmYABBY 基因可能参与了三条染色体上的片段复制。所有 AmYABBY 蛋白都有一个锌指 YABBY 结构域,同族成员具有相似的基序组成和内含子-外显子结构。在基因的启动子区域,光响应和 MeJa 响应顺式元件占主导地位。AmYABBY 在茎和叶中高表达,尤其是 AmYABBY1、AmYABBY2 和 AmYABBY3,它们在茎和叶的生长发育中起着重要作用。AmYABBY基因家族调控着A. mongholicus的生长发育。综上所述,本研究为深入研究AmYABBY基因的功能提供了理论依据,并为中药材A. mongholicus生长发育的分子响应机制提供了新的见解。
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引用次数: 0
Cloning and functional validation of DsWRKY6 gene from Desmodium styracifolium. Desmodium styracifolium 的 DsWRKY6 基因的克隆和功能验证。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-05-14 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2024.2349868
Qilin Yang, Jinheng Huang, Xiaofeng Nie, XiaoMin Tang, Peiran Liao, Quan Yang

The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of transcription factor in Desmodium styracifolium, proving that the DsWRKY6 transcription factor was related to the plant phenotypes of Desmodium styracifolium - cv. 'GuangYaoDa1' and it could be used in molecular-assisted breeding. 'GuangYaoDa1' was used as the material and its DNA was the template to clone DsWRKY6, the transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana line was constructed by agrobacterium tumefaciens‑mediated transformation. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was cultivated to study phenotype and physiological and biochemical indexes. Phenotypic observation showed that DsWRKY6 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana had a faster growth rate while compared with the control group, they had longer lengths of main stem, lateral branches of cauline leaves, and root, but a lower number of cauline leaves and lateral branches of cauline leaves. And it also showed that their flowering and fruiting periods were advanced. The results of physiological and biochemical indexes showed that the relative expressions of DsWRKY6 increased and the abscisic acid content significantly increased in DsWRKY6 transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana compared with the control group. According to the above results, DsWRKY6 could regulate the advancing of flowering and fruiting periods caused by the improvement of abscisic acid content, and expression of the DsWRKY6 transcription factor might be the cause of the upright growth of 'GuangYaoDa1'.

本研究旨在分析转录因子在Desmodium styracifolium中的作用,证明DsWRKY6转录因子与Desmodium styracifolium - cv. 'GuangYaoDa1'的植株表型有关,可用于分子辅助育种。以'广药大1号'为材料,以其DNA为模板克隆DsWRKY6,通过农杆菌介导的转化构建转基因拟南芥品系。对转基因拟南芥进行了表型和生理生化指标的研究。表型观察结果表明,与对照组相比,DsWRKY6转基因拟南芥的生长速度更快,主茎、茎叶侧枝和根的长度更长,但茎叶和茎叶侧枝的数量较少。这也表明它们的花期和果期都提前了。生理生化指标结果表明,与对照组相比,DsWRKY6转基因拟南芥中DsWRKY6的相对表达量增加,赤霉酸含量显著增加。根据上述结果,DsWRKY6能调控脱落酸含量提高引起的花果期提前,DsWRKY6转录因子的表达可能是'广药大1号'直立生长的原因。
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引用次数: 0
Endoscope disinfectant-induced colonic pseudolipomatosis: case series of a rare condition. 内窥镜消毒剂诱发的结肠假脂瘤病:罕见病例系列。
IF 2.5 Q2 Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-12 DOI: 10.2144/fsoa-2023-0210
Charfeddine Baccouche, Myriam Ayari, Imen Abdelaali, Amen Dhaoui, Taieb Jomni, Mohamed Hedi Douggui

Aim: Colonic mucosal pseudolipomatosis is a rare and benign endoscopic finding with distinct macroscopic and histological characteristics. Case series: We observed a form of unprecedented colitis in eight patients in a 3-month period. Operators have found, during colonoscopy, flat or slightly raised whitish-yellow plaques, in the colonic mucosa of all patients. Histological examination concluded to pseudolipomatosis. After investigation, the disinfectant machine was found to have technical malfunctioning of the rinse cycle of the endoscope during this period. No other cases were observed after the machine was fixed. Conclusion: Pseudolipomatosis is more an endoscopically induced lesion than a true pathological condition. A careful check of the disinfection process should be carried out when such lesions are detected.

目的:结肠粘膜假脂瘤病是一种罕见的良性内镜病变,具有明显的宏观和组织学特征。病例系列:我们在 3 个月内观察到 8 名患者出现了这种前所未有的结肠炎。操作人员在结肠镜检查中发现,所有患者的结肠粘膜上都有扁平或略微隆起的白黄色斑块。组织学检查的结论是假性脂肪瘤病。经调查发现,在此期间,消毒机的内窥镜冲洗循环出现了技术故障。机器修好后,未再发现其他病例。结论假性脂肪瘤是内窥镜诱发的病变,而非真正的病理状态。发现此类病变时,应仔细检查消毒过程。
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引用次数: 0
Drought-induced molecular changes in crown of various barley phytohormone mutants. 干旱诱导的各种大麦植物激素突变体树冠的分子变化。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-26 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2024.2371693
Anetta Kuczyńska, Martyna Michałek, Piotr Ogrodowicz, Michał Kempa, Natalia Witaszak, Michał Dziurka, Damian Gruszka, Agata Daszkowska-Golec, Iwona Szarejko, Paweł Krajewski, Krzysztof Mikołajczak

One of the main signal transduction pathways that modulate plant growth and stress responses, including drought, is the action of phytohormones. Recent advances in omics approaches have facilitated the exploration of plant genomes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response in the crown of barley, which plays an essential role in plant performance under stress conditions and regeneration after stress treatment, remain largely unclear. The objective of the present study was the elucidation of drought-induced molecular reactions in the crowns of different barley phytohormone mutants. We verified the hypothesis that defects of gibberellins, brassinosteroids, and strigolactones action affect the transcriptomic, proteomic, and hormonal response of barley crown to the transitory drought influencing plant development under stress. Moreover, we assumed that due to the strong connection between strigolactones and branching the hvdwarf14.d mutant, with dysfunctional receptor of strigolactones, manifests the most abundant alternations in crowns and phenotype under drought. Finally, we expected to identify components underlying the core response to drought which are independent of the genetic background. Large-scale analyses were conducted using gibberellins-biosynthesis, brassinosteroids-signaling, and strigolactones-signaling mutants, as well as reference genotypes. Detailed phenotypic evaluation was also conducted. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that hormonal disorders caused by mutations in the HvGA20ox2, HvBRI1, and HvD14 genes affected the multifaceted reaction of crowns to drought, although the expression of these genes was not induced by stress. The study further detected not only genes and proteins that were involved in the drought response and reacted specifically in mutants compared to the reaction of reference genotypes and vice versa, but also the candidates that may underlie the genotype-universal stress response. Furthermore, candidate genes involved in phytohormonal interactions during the drought response were identified. We also found that the interplay between hormones, especially gibberellins and auxins, as well as strigolactones and cytokinins may be associated with the regulation of branching in crowns exposed to drought. Overall, the present study provides novel insights into the molecular drought-induced responses that occur in barley crowns.

植物激素的作用是调节植物生长和胁迫反应(包括干旱)的主要信号转导途径之一。近年来,全息方法的进步促进了对植物基因组的探索。然而,大麦树冠在植物在胁迫条件下的表现和胁迫处理后的再生中起着至关重要的作用,其反应的分子机制在很大程度上仍不清楚。本研究的目的是阐明不同大麦植物激素突变体树冠中干旱诱导的分子反应。我们验证了一个假设,即赤霉素、铜素类固醇和赤霉内酯的作用缺陷会影响大麦树冠对暂时性干旱的转录组、蛋白质组和激素反应,从而影响植物在胁迫下的生长发育。此外,我们假定,由于赤霉内酯与分枝之间的密切联系,赤霉内酯受体功能失调的 hvdwarf14.d 突变体在干旱条件下表现出最丰富的树冠和表型变化。最后,我们希望找出与遗传背景无关的干旱核心反应的基本成分。我们利用赤霉素-生物合成、铜素类固醇-信号转导和赤霉内酯-信号转导突变体以及参考基因型进行了大规模分析。还进行了详细的表型评估。研究结果清楚地表明,HvGA20ox2、HvBRI1 和 HvD14 基因突变导致的激素紊乱影响了树冠对干旱的多方面反应,尽管这些基因的表达并未受到胁迫的诱导。该研究不仅进一步发现了参与干旱响应的基因和蛋白质,这些基因和蛋白质在突变体中的反应与参考基因型的反应相比具有特异性,反之亦然。此外,我们还发现了在干旱响应过程中参与植物激素相互作用的候选基因。我们还发现,激素(尤其是赤霉素和辅酶)以及赤霉内酯和细胞分裂素之间的相互作用可能与干旱下树冠分枝的调控有关。总之,本研究为大麦树冠中发生的干旱诱导的分子反应提供了新的见解。
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引用次数: 0
The Impact of Centralized Procurement on Treatment Patterns for Myocardial Infarction and More Principled Utilization of Coronary Stents. 集中采购对心肌梗塞治疗模式的影响以及冠状动脉支架的更合理利用。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-21 DOI: 10.1080/23288604.2024.2366167
Weiyan Jian, Shanshan Huo, Lanyue Zhang, Wuping Zhou

Reducing the price of expensive medical products through centralized procurement is generally considered an effective way to save public medical resources. Against this background, this paper presents an analysis of the impact of centralized procurement in China by comparing the treatment costs and patterns for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients before and after the introduction of this method of purchasing, with specific reference to the use of coronary stents. We found that, after the implementation of centralized procurement for coronary stents, the total expenditure of AMI cases receiving percutaneous coronary interventions with stent implantation (PCI with stents) dropped by 23.4%. The use rate of PCI with stents decreased by 32.5%, with the most significant decrease being evident in cases in which two stents were used simultaneously (32.9%). Meanwhile, percutaneous coronary interventions with balloon implantation (PCI with balloons) increased by 31.5% and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) increased by 80.3%. Based on these patterns, it can be observed that the use of centralized procurement significantly reduced the profits of the relevant medical manufacturers, forcing them to decrease their marketing investments, weakening their influence on providers, and ultimately resulting in a more principled use of coronary stents. We therefore conclude that, with reference to the data cited, the centralized procurement program led not only to a reduction in procurement prices but also to decreased overuse of these expensive medical products.

通过集中采购降低昂贵医疗产品的价格被普遍认为是节约公共医疗资源的有效途径。在此背景下,本文通过比较集中采购前后急性心肌梗死(AMI)患者的治疗费用和模式,特别是冠状动脉支架的使用情况,分析了集中采购在中国的影响。我们发现,在实施冠状动脉支架集中采购后,接受经皮冠状动脉介入治疗并植入支架(PCI with stents)的急性心肌梗死病例的总支出下降了 23.4%。植入支架的经皮冠状动脉介入治疗的使用率下降了 32.5%,其中同时使用两个支架的病例下降最为明显(32.9%)。同时,球囊植入经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI with balloons)增加了 31.5%,冠状动脉旁路移植术(CABG)增加了 80.3%。根据这些模式可以看出,集中采购的使用大大降低了相关医疗制造商的利润,迫使他们减少营销投入,削弱了他们对医疗服务提供者的影响力,最终导致冠状动脉支架的使用更加原则化。因此,我们得出结论,根据所引用的数据,集中采购计划不仅降低了采购价格,还减少了这些昂贵医疗产品的过度使用。
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引用次数: 0
Allelopathy and potential allelochemicals of Ligularia sagitta as an invasive plant. 作为入侵植物的矢车菊的同位异化作用和潜在的同位化学物质。
Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-04-28 DOI: 10.1080/15592324.2024.2335025
Shengxiao Wang, Chenyue Wang, Jun Zhang, Kan Jiang, Fang Nian

Allelopathy is the main chemical means in the invasion process of exotic plants and one of the key factors in grassland degradation. In this experiment, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate phase extract (EAE), n-butanol phase extract (BE) and aqueous phase extract (AE) from the aboveground (stems and leaves) and roots of Ligularia sagitta on seed germination and seedling growth of four Gramineae forages (Poa pratensis L. Festuca ovina L. Elymus nutans Griseb. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.) in their sympatric domains and one Legosuminae forage (Medicago sativa L.). The chemical components in each phase extract of L. sagitta were determined with UHPLC-MS/MS non-targeted metabolomics, and the differential compounds were screened using Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). Within a set concentration range, EAE significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of four Gramineae forages. BE and AE acted mainly in the seedling growth stage and did not significantly inhibit forage seed germination. P. pratensis was most sensitive to L. sagitta extracts; at 2.0 mg/mL of EAE from roots, germination energy and germination rate of P. pratensis seeds were 0. L. sagitta extracts inhibited the growth of M. sativa seedlings and did not inhibit its seed germination. A total of 904 compounds were identified with UHPLC-MS/MS, among which 31, 64, 81 and 66 metabolites displayed different accumulation patterns in the four comparison groups (R.EAE vs. R.BE, R.EAE vs. R.AE, SL.EAE vs. SL.BE, SL.EAE vs. SL.AE), respectively. In particular, 9 compounds were found to be common up-regulated differential metabolites in the four comparison groups and were enriched in EAE. Additionally, N,N-dimethylaniline, Caffeic acid, 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and cis-9-Octadecenoic acid as potential allelochemicals in L. sagitta. The results of this study support efforts at finding alternative control plants for the restoration of poisonous grass-type degraded grasslands.

异化作用是外来植物入侵过程中的主要化学手段,也是草地退化的关键因素之一。在本实验中,我们研究了乙酸乙酯相提取物(EAE)、正丁醇相提取物(BE)和水相提取物(AE)对四种禾本科牧草(Poa pratensis L. Festuca ovina L. Elymus nutans Griseb.Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.)以及一种豆科牧草(Medicago sativa L.)。利用超高效液相色谱-质谱/质谱非靶向代谢组学测定了矢车菊各阶段提取物中的化学成分,并利用正交偏最小二乘法判别分析(OPLS-DA)筛选了差异化合物。在设定的浓度范围内,EAE 能显著抑制四种禾本科牧草的种子萌发和幼苗生长。BE 和 AE 主要作用于幼苗生长阶段,对牧草种子萌发的抑制作用不明显。矢车菊对矢车菊提取物最为敏感;在根部提取 2.0 毫克/毫升的 EAE 时,矢车菊种子的萌发能和萌发率均为 0;矢车菊提取物抑制荠菜幼苗的生长,但不抑制其种子萌发。用 UHPLC-MS/MS 鉴定了 904 种化合物,其中 31、64、81 和 66 种代谢物在四个比较组(R.EAE 与 R.BE、R.EAE 与 R.AE、SL.EAE 与 SL.BE、SL.EAE 与 SL.AE)中分别显示出不同的积累模式。其中,有9种化合物是四个对比组中常见的上调差异代谢物,并在EAE中富集。此外,N,N-二甲基苯胺、咖啡酸、4-羟基苯甲酸、4-羟基苯甲醛和顺式-9-十八碳烯酸是矢车菊中潜在的等位化学物质。这项研究的结果支持了为恢复毒草型退化草地寻找替代控制植物的努力。
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