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Sexual Offenders With Intellectual Disabilities: An Exploratory Comparison Study in an Incarcerated U.S. Sample. 有智力障碍的性犯罪者:美国监禁样本的探索性比较研究。
IF 1.3 4区 社会学 Q3 CRIMINOLOGY & PENOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2021-12-29 DOI: 10.1177/0306624X211066825
Perry A Callahan, Elizabeth L Jeglic, Cynthia Calkins

Research indicates that individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are overrepresented among sexual offenders, and that those with ID might differ from those without ID in terms of the etiology of offending behavior. Despite this, few studies have explored ID using incarcerated U.S. samples. The present study sought to identify relevant characteristics of this population by comparing individuals with and without ID who are incarcerated in the U.S. for sexual offenses. Archival records for 3,066 participants were used to determine demographic, historical, and offense-related characteristics. Participants with ID, including those with borderline ID, comprised 19.1% of the sample and displayed elevated rates of adverse childhood experiences and psychopathology. Contrary to previous research, participants with ID were no more likely to offend against children than those without ID. These findings help to elucidate the etiology of offending behavior among those with ID and inform on potential targets for intervention.

研究表明,智障人士在性犯罪者中所占比例过高,而且智障人士与非智障人士在犯罪行为的病因方面可能有所不同。尽管如此,很少有研究利用被监禁的美国样本来探讨智障人士。本研究试图通过比较在美国因性犯罪而被监禁的 ID 患者和非 ID 患者,来确定这一人群的相关特征。本研究使用了 3,066 名参与者的档案记录来确定人口、历史和犯罪相关特征。患有智障的参与者(包括边缘智障者)占样本的 19.1%,他们的童年不良经历和精神病理学比例较高。与之前的研究相反,智障参与者对儿童实施犯罪的可能性并不比无智障者高。这些发现有助于阐明智障人士犯罪行为的病因,并为潜在的干预目标提供信息。
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引用次数: 0
Adolescent Delinquency and Adulthood Economic Disadvantage and Job Benefits: Results From a Longitudinal Sample of Males and Females. 青少年犯罪与成年后的经济劣势和工作福利:男性和女性纵向样本的结果。
IF 1.3 4区 社会学 Q3 CRIMINOLOGY & PENOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2022-07-14 DOI: 10.1177/0306624X221110802
Marlen Turgumbayev, Dzhansarayeva Rima, Murat Dossanov, Ali Baisalov, Kevin M Beaver

There is a long history of examining the connection between crime and delinquency and economic well-being and employment quality. Despite this vast literature, there still remains unanswered questions surrounding these associations, including whether the timing of adolescent delinquency is associated with adulthood economic disadvantage and job quality, whether different types of adolescent delinquency maintain differential associations with measures of economic disadvantage and employment quality in adulthood, and whether any associations between delinquency and economics/employment are invariant between males and females. The current study sought to address these issues by exploring the associations between adolescent involvement in nonviolent and violent delinquency (measured at two times in adolescence) and adulthood economic disadvantage and job quality. To do so, data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analyzed. The results revealed consistently null associations between the measures of adolescent delinquency and economic disadvantage and job quality for males. For females, however, the results were consistently significant, indicating that females who self-reported greater involvement in delinquency were more likely to be economically disadvantaged as adults and to have lower quality jobs. These results indicate that the associations between delinquency and economic disadvantage and job benefits differs between males and females, with females, in comparison with males, paying a significantly greater toll for engaging in acts of violent and nonviolent delinquency.

研究犯罪和违法行为与经济福利和就业质量之间的联系由来已久。尽管文献数量庞大,但围绕这些关联的问题仍未得到解答,包括青少年犯罪的时间是否与成年后的经济劣势和就业质量相关,不同类型的青少年犯罪是否与成年后的经济劣势和就业质量保持不同的关联,以及犯罪与经济/就业之间的关联在男性和女性之间是否存在不变性。本研究试图通过探讨青少年参与非暴力和暴力犯罪(在青少年时期两次测量)与成年后经济劣势和就业质量之间的关联来解决这些问题。为此,研究人员分析了《全国青少年到成人健康纵向研究》(National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health)中的数据。结果显示,青少年犯罪与男性的经济劣势和工作质量之间始终没有关联。然而,对于女性来说,结果却一直是显著的,这表明那些自我报告参与犯罪较多的女性在成年后更有可能处于经济劣势,工作质量也更低。这些结果表明,犯罪与经济劣势和工作福利之间的关联在男性和女性之间存在差异,与男性相比,女性因参与暴力和非暴力犯罪而付出的代价更大。
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引用次数: 0
Understanding Engagement With Forensic Smartphone Apps: The Service Design Engagement Model. 了解法医智能手机应用程序的参与情况:服务设计参与模式。
IF 1.3 4区 社会学 Q3 CRIMINOLOGY & PENOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2022-06-22 DOI: 10.1177/0306624X221106323
Stuart Ross, Mark A Wood, Diana Johns, John Murphy, Ron Baird, Brooke Alford

Justice services have begun to integrate the use of mobile applications into treatment, support, and rehabilitative programs for forensic clients. One such application that been adopted to support forensic clients is "eRecovery": a smartphone application that provides clients recovering from a substance addiction with support for managing relapse. In this article, we report on evaluation findings from a trial of eRecovery in an Australian Community Justice Centre, and reflect on several issues relating to fostering and sustaining client engagement with similar applications within forensic and justice settings. We propose the Service Design Engagement Model to organize, visualize, and describe the stages and factors important to adoption, appropriation, and on-going routine use of the software by forensic clients. The model recognizes the role of contextual and environmental factors in supporting users through the early stages of engagement, and the importance of user agency in longer-term engagement with therapeutic apps.

司法服务部门已开始将移动应用程序的使用纳入法医服务对象的治疗、支持和康复计划中。eRecovery" 就是这样一款被采用来支持法医服务对象的应用程序:它是一款智能手机应用程序,可为戒除毒瘾的服务对象提供控制复发的支持。在本文中,我们报告了在澳大利亚社区司法中心试用 eRecovery 的评估结果,并反思了在法医和司法环境中促进和维持客户参与类似应用程序的几个相关问题。我们提出了 "服务设计参与模型"(Service Design Engagement Model),用于组织、可视化和描述法医客户采用、占有和持续常规使用软件的重要阶段和因素。该模型认识到背景和环境因素在支持用户完成早期参与阶段中的作用,以及用户机构在长期参与治疗应用程序中的重要性。
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引用次数: 0
Does Institutional Quality Matter for Foreign Direct Investment and Human Development? 制度质量对外国直接投资和人类发展重要吗?
IF 3 4区 社会学 Q2 Arts and Humanities Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2023-08-17 DOI: 10.1177/0193841X231195798
Van Thi Cam Ha, Tinh Doan, Mark J Holmes, Tuyen Quang Tran

This study examines the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), institutional quality and human development) in host countries from 2002 to 2019, using the Human Development Index [HDI] as the measure of human development. This study utilized a panel dataset of 143 countries, including both developed and developing economies, over a 17-year period. Additionally, the study employed a GMM (generalized method of moments) estimator to address unobservable heterogeneity and simultaneity. This study reveals a significant positive relationship between FDI and human development, with a stronger effect observed in developing countries compared to in developed countries. Notably, the impact of FDI-HDI nexus is larger in countries with moderately high-quality institutions, irrespective of their income level. Furthermore, good governance plays a crucial role in enhancing human development, as developing economies with high governance quality experience a greater impact of FDI on HDI compared to other countries. The findings of this study suggest that attracting FDI can be beneficial for enhancing the HDI, especially in developing countries. Additionally, the study highlights governance as a moderating factor in the relationship between FDI and HDI. Improving governance quality can enhance the positive impact of FDI on human development in host countries, especially in developing countries.

本研究以人类发展指数(HDI)作为衡量人类发展的指标,探讨了 2002 年至 2019 年东道国的外国直接投资(FDI)、制度质量和人类发展之间的关系。本研究使用了一个包含 143 个国家的面板数据集,其中既有发达经济体,也有发展中经济体,时间跨度长达 17 年。此外,研究还采用了 GMM(广义矩法)估计方法来解决不可观测的异质性和同时性问题。研究显示,外国直接投资与人类发展之间存在显著的正相关关系,与发达国家相比,发展中国家的影响更大。值得注意的是,无论收入水平如何,外国直接投资与人类发展之间的关系对拥有中等质量机构的国家的影响更大。此外,善治在促进人类发展方面发挥着至关重要的作用,因为与其他国家相比,善治质量高的发展中经济体的外国直接投资对人类发展指数的影响更大。研究结果表明,吸引外国直接投资有利于提高人类发展指数,尤其是在发展中国家。此外,本研究还强调治理是外国直接投资与人类发展指数之间关系的调节因素。提高治理质量可以增强外国直接投资对东道国,特别是发展中国家人类发展的积极影响。
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引用次数: 0
Understanding the Interplay of Religion, Social Relationships, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life: An Analysis of Dynamics in Individual and Dyadic Contexts. 了解宗教、社会关系和晚年抑郁症状的相互作用:个人和社群背景下的动态分析》(Analysis of Dynamics in Individual and Dyadic Contexts)。
IF 1.8 3区 社会学 Q2 Social Sciences Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2024-03-03 DOI: 10.1177/01640275241237539
Hayoung Park, Susanna Joo, Hyoun K Kim

This study examined how religious participation at the individual level and the dyadic religious similarity at the couple level influenced depressive symptoms via social relationships among older Korean couples aged 65 and above. The sample included 1,191 couples from the seventh assessment of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. The findings indicated that older adults who participated in religious activities more frequently showed lower levels of depressive symptoms through increased social interactions and marital satisfaction. Additionally, older couples with similar religious backgrounds showed higher levels of marital satisfaction than those without similar religious backgrounds, subsequently leading to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Overall, the associations between religion and depressive symptoms were similar for both genders. The findings provided insights into potential mechanisms leading to later-life depressive symptoms at both the individual and couple levels in terms of religion and social relationships and informed practical implications for older couples' marital relationships.

本研究探讨了个人层面的宗教参与和夫妇层面的宗教相似性如何通过社会关系影响韩国 65 岁及以上老年夫妇的抑郁症状。样本包括韩国老龄化纵向研究第七次评估中的 1,191 对夫妇。研究结果表明,经常参加宗教活动的老年人会通过增加社交互动和婚姻满意度来降低抑郁症状。此外,具有相似宗教背景的老年夫妇比没有相似宗教背景的老年夫妇表现出更高的婚姻满意度,从而导致抑郁症状水平降低。总体而言,宗教信仰与抑郁症状之间的关联在男女两性中都是相似的。研究结果从宗教和社会关系的角度,从个人和夫妻两个层面深入探讨了导致晚年抑郁症状的潜在机制,并为老年夫妇的婚姻关系提供了实际启示。
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引用次数: 0
The Impact of School Infrastructure and Teachers' Human Capital on Academic Performance in Brazil. 巴西学校基础设施和教师人力资本对学业成绩的影响》(The Impact of School Infrastructure and Teachers' Human Capital on Academic Performance in Brazil.
IF 3 4区 社会学 Q2 Arts and Humanities Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2023-08-23 DOI: 10.1177/0193841X231197741
Peter Wanke, Adriano Lauro, Otávio H Dos Santos Figueiredo, João Ricardo Faria, Franklin G Mixon

To improve one of the lowest rates of literacy and numeracy in the world, the government of Brazil has targeted public education reform, given the strong link between an educated population and economic growth. This study examines the academic performance of the Brazilian public primary school system. It addresses the empirical shortcomings of prior research to examine the dynamics of the relationship between academic performance scores and several demographic and institutional variables, such as socioeconomic characteristics, variations in school infrastructure and school complexity, and teachers' human capital. We employed quantile regression to explore the determinants of academic performance across 35,490 schools in rural and urban environments in Brazil. The dependent variable in our analysis captures the academic performance score, as measured by Brazil's education authorities, of each school in our dataset. The model includes several education-related indices used in prior research and, as explanatory factors, measures of teachers' human capital and the students' socioeconomic level, which synthesizes information on parents' education and household income. The results suggest that several institutional variables, including access to school libraries, computer facilities, projectors, and televisions, are positively and significantly related to the academic performance of primary students in Brazil's system of public education. Furthermore, students' socioeconomic level is positively associated with their academic performance.

巴西是世界上识字率和识数率最低的国家之一,为了提高识字率和识数率,巴西政府将公共教育改革作为目标,因为受过教育的人口与经济增长密切相关。本研究探讨了巴西公立小学系统的学业成绩。它弥补了以往研究在实证方面的不足,考察了学业成绩分数与几个人口和制度变量之间的动态关系,如社会经济特征、学校基础设施和学校复杂性的变化以及教师的人力资本。我们采用了量子回归法来探讨巴西城乡环境中 35,490 所学校学业成绩的决定因素。我们的分析中的因变量捕捉了数据集中每所学校的学业成绩分数,该分数由巴西教育当局衡量。该模型包括之前研究中使用的几个与教育相关的指数,以及作为解释因素的教师人力资本和学生社会经济水平的衡量指标,后者综合了父母的教育程度和家庭收入等信息。研究结果表明,在巴西的公立教育系统中,一些制度变量,包括学校图书馆、计算机设备、投影仪和电视机的使用情况,与小学生的学业成绩呈显著正相关。此外,学生的社会经济水平也与他们的学习成绩呈正相关。
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引用次数: 0
Building a Logic Model to Foster Engagement and Learning Using the Case of a Province-Wide Multispecies Antimicrobial Use Monitoring System. 利用全省多物种抗菌药使用监测系统案例,建立促进参与和学习的逻辑模型。
IF 3 4区 社会学 Q2 Arts and Humanities Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2023-09-08 DOI: 10.1177/0193841X231198706
Antoine Boudreau LeBlanc, Aude Motulsky, Marie-Pierre Moreault, Man Qing Liang, Ida Ngueng Feze, Luc Des Côteaux

Successfully designing and implementing a program is complex; it requires a reflexive balance between the available resources and the priorities of various stakeholders, both of which change over time. Logic models are theory-based evaluation approaches used to identify and address key challenges of a program. This article describes the process of building a logic model on advanced theories in complexity studies. The models aim to support a province-wide multispecies monitoring system of antimicrobial use (AMU), designed in collaboration with the animal health sector in Quebec (Canada). Based on a rigorous theoretical foundation, the logic model is built in three steps: (1) mapping, a narrative review of literature on similar programs in other jurisdictions; (2) framing, iterative consultations with project members to elaborate the logic model; (3) shaping, hypotheses based on the logic model. The model emerges from the reflexive balancing of current scientific knowledge and empirical insights to gather relevant information about stakeholders from interdisciplinary experts that led a 3-year consensus-building process within the community. Recognizing the challenge of unpacking theories for practical use, we illustrate how the process of an "open" logic model building could enable governance coordination in complex processes. Logic models are useful for evaluating public, private, and academic partnerships in One Health programs that characterize an adaptive governance process.

成功设计和实施一项计划非常复杂;它需要在可用资源和各利益相关方的优先事项之间进行反思性平衡,而这两者都会随着时间的推移而发生变化。逻辑模型是一种基于理论的评估方法,用于识别和应对计划的关键挑战。本文介绍了在复杂性研究的先进理论基础上建立逻辑模型的过程。该模型旨在支持与加拿大魁北克省动物卫生部门合作设计的全省多物种抗菌药使用监测系统(AMU)。逻辑模型建立在严谨的理论基础之上,分为三个步骤:(1) 制图,对其他辖区类似计划的文献进行叙述性审查;(2) 构架,与项目成员反复磋商,以详细阐述逻辑模型;(3) 塑造,根据逻辑模型提出假设。该模型的产生源于对当前科学知识和经验见解的反思性平衡,从跨学科专家那里收集利益相关者的相关信息,并在社区内开展了为期 3 年的建立共识进程。我们认识到为实际使用拆解理论所面临的挑战,因此说明了 "开放式 "逻辑模型的构建过程如何能够在复杂的过程中实现治理协调。逻辑模型有助于评估 "一体健康 "计划中的公共、私营和学术合作伙伴关系,这些合作伙伴关系是适应性治理过程的特征。
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引用次数: 0
Explaining the Patterns of Bullying Victimization Trajectories: Assessing the Generality of Low Self-Control and Crime Opportunity Models to Bullying Victims. 解释欺凌受害者的轨迹模式:评估低自控力和犯罪机会模型对欺凌受害者的通用性。
IF 1.3 4区 社会学 Q3 CRIMINOLOGY & PENOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2022-06-22 DOI: 10.1177/0306624X221102793
Sujung Cho, Insun Park

This study hypothesizes that self-control and opportunity variables affect heterogeneity in developmental trajectories of bullying victimization. Using data from a follow-up study of 2,351 Korean adolescents, the study incorporates a latent class growth analysis approach to identify subgroups, each with a unique pattern of the trajectories. The model yields three subgroups of bullying victims: the early-onset and decreaser, the increaser and late-peak, and the normative groups. Results suggest that, compared to the normative group, the early-onset and decreasing group members manifest lower levels of self-control and engage in a greater range of delinquent behaviors. Also, the impact of low self-control on group membership was attenuated after controlling for those opportunity variables, indicating a partially mediating relationship. Social guardianship variables distinguished normative groups from other victim groups. Further, members of the increaser and late-peak group were more likely than the early-onset and decreaser group members to engage in cyber deviance over the long-term.

本研究假设,自我控制和机会变量会影响欺凌受害发展轨迹的异质性。本研究利用对 2351 名韩国青少年的跟踪研究数据,采用潜类增长分析方法来识别子群体,每个子群体都有独特的轨迹模式。该模型得出了欺凌受害者的三个亚群:早发和递减组、递增和晚峰组以及正常组。结果表明,与正常组相比,早发组和递减组的成员表现出较低的自我控制水平,并有更多的不良行为。此外,在控制了这些机会变量后,低自控力对群体成员身份的影响有所减弱,这表明两者之间存在部分中介关系。社会监护变量将规范群体与其他受害者群体区分开来。此外,增量组和峰值晚期组的成员比增量组和峰值晚期组的成员更有可能长期从事网络偏差行为。
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引用次数: 0
Children's Opportunities and Constraints in European Parent Care Over Time: A Within-Family Approach. 随着时间的推移,儿童在欧洲父母照料中的机会和限制:一种家庭内部方法。
IF 1.8 3区 社会学 Q2 Social Sciences Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2024-01-30 DOI: 10.1177/01640275231226404
Jorik Vergauwen

The role of children's caregiving has received substantial attention in studies on care in old age. Previous research shows that children's care provision is strongly intertwined with both their individual and siblings' situation regarding employment and geographic parent-child distance. This study uses data from six waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), taking a within-family approach, to examine how caregiving is (re-)distributed between siblings over time. The provision of continuous parent care is observed more frequent and volatile in European countries with a family-based care system. The results from family fixed-effects regression models demonstrate that children working less than siblings persist in caregiving more. Living closest to parents facilitates children to keep up care efforts, while changing to living closest enhances the start of parent care. This study suggests that geographic distance is vital in the long-term organization of parent care between siblings.

在有关老年护理的研究中,子女的护理作用受到了广泛关注。以往的研究表明,子女提供的照顾与其个人和兄弟姐妹的就业情况以及父母与子女的地理距离密切相关。本研究利用欧洲健康、老龄化和退休调查(SHARE)的六次波次数据,采用家庭内部研究方法,考察了随着时间的推移,照料在兄弟姐妹之间是如何(重新)分配的。在以家庭为基础的护理系统的欧洲国家中,父母持续提供护理的频率更高,波动也更大。家庭固定效应回归模型的结果表明,与兄弟姐妹相比,工作较少的子女更愿意持续提供照料。与父母住得最近有利于子女坚持照顾父母,而改住得最近则有利于子女开始照顾父母。这项研究表明,地理距离对兄弟姐妹之间长期组织照顾父母至关重要。
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引用次数: 0
Moderating Role of Neighborhood Environment in the Associations Between Hearing Loss and Cognitive Challenges Among Older Adults: Evidence From US National Study. 邻里环境对老年人听力损失与认知挑战之间关系的调节作用:来自美国国家研究的证据
IF 1.8 3区 社会学 Q2 Social Sciences Pub Date : 2024-08-01 Epub Date: 2024-02-16 DOI: 10.1177/01640275241234372
Ethan Siu Leung Cheung, Zhe Zhang

This study examined the associations between hearing loss and cognitive challenges among community-dwelling older adults and whether neighborhood characteristics (physical disorder and low social cohesion) moderated the associations. Cross-sectional national data from Round 11 of the National Health and Aging Trends Study were adopted (N = 2,515). Multinomial logistic regressions were used to examine associations among variables and interactive analyses were conducted to examine moderating effects. Results indicated significant relationships between the experience of hearing loss and possible dementia and between severe or profound hearing loss and probable dementia. Interactive models suggested that residing in neighborhoods with physical disorder and low social cohesion were negatively associated with possible dementia among older adults with moderate and severe or profound hearing loss, respectively, compared to those without hearing loss. Findings underscore the necessity of environmental and social interventions to enhance cognitive health among older adults with varying degrees of hearing challenges.

本研究探讨了居住在社区的老年人听力损失与认知挑战之间的关联,以及邻里特征(身体失调和社会凝聚力低)是否会调节这种关联。研究采用了全国健康与老龄化趋势研究第 11 轮的全国横截面数据(N = 2,515)。采用多项式逻辑回归来检验变量之间的关联,并进行交互分析来检验调节效应。结果表明,听力损失经历与可能的痴呆症之间,以及严重或深度听力损失与可能的痴呆症之间存在着明显的关系。互动模型表明,与没有听力损失的老年人相比,居住在有物理障碍的社区和社会凝聚力低的社区分别与患有中度和重度或极重度听力损失的老年人可能患有痴呆症呈负相关。研究结果强调,有必要采取环境和社会干预措施,以提高有不同程度听力障碍的老年人的认知健康水平。
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引用次数: 0
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