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Petroleum migration and accumulation in a shale oil system of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin, northeastern China 中国东北松辽盆地上白垩统青山口地层页岩油系统中的石油迁移与积累
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/03212423016
Wenming Ji, Fang Hao, Fanhao Gong, Jian Zhang, Yunfeng Bai, Chao Liang, Jinqiang Tian
Petroleum migration and accumulation associated with ostracod-bearing layers in shale oil systems were investigated using a large suite of high-resolution geochemical and mineralogical data combined with petrology description and pore characterization of shale core samples from the first member of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation in the Qijia-Gulong sag of the Songliao Basin, northeastern China. The first member of the Qingshankou shale, deposited in a moderately deep lake setting, is dominated mainly by massive mud rock and laminated shale with numerous ostracod-enriched interbedded layers. The thin carbonate-rich ostracod-bearing layers dominate the total organic carbon (TOC)–lean facies having TOC values of <2 wt. %. Petroleum yields (volatile free hydrocarbons in programmed pyrolysis [S1]) and solvent extract yields share similar vertical variation trends with TOC content, indicating that TOC content exerts an important control on retained hydrocarbon. However, there exist some upward increasing trends of TOC-normalized petroleum yields (S1) and solvent extract yields around the organic-lean interbedded carbonate-rich layers dominated by ostracods. This phenomenon, combined with bitumen and fluorescing oil within fractures and ostracod-associated pores, abnormal Rock-Eval pyrolysis parameters, compositional differences, and molecular size differences, indicate the presence of migrated hydrocarbon in organic-lean interbedded ostracod-bearing layers. The oil production of ostracod-related organic-lean shale reservoirs is much more effective due to the high brittleness of organic-lean lithofacies, improved oil quality, and low content of adsorbed oil. Three stages were proposed in a conceptual model for petroleum migration and accumulation associated with ostracod-bearing layers in the Qingshankou shale oil system.
利用大量高分辨率地球化学和矿物学数据,结合岩石学描述和中国东北松辽盆地齐家-古隆坳陷上白垩统青山口地层第一层页岩岩芯样品的孔隙特征,研究了页岩油系统中与含梭藻层相关的石油迁移和积累。青山口页岩第一层沉积于中等深度的湖泊环境中,主要由块状泥岩和层状页岩组成,其中夹有大量富含梭形虫的互层。富含碳酸盐的薄层是总有机碳(TOC)含量小于 2 wt.石油产率(程序热解中的挥发性游离碳氢化合物[S1])和溶剂萃取产率与 TOC 含量具有相似的垂直变化趋势,表明 TOC 含量对保留碳氢化合物具有重要的控制作用。但是,在以浮游生物为主的富含碳酸盐的有机层间地层周围,TOC归一化石油产率(S1)和溶剂萃取产率呈上升趋势。这一现象与裂缝和与梭形虫相关的孔隙中的沥青和荧光油、异常的Rock-Eval热解参数、成分差异和分子大小差异结合在一起,表明在有机-鳞片互层的梭形虫含油层中存在迁移的碳氢化合物。由于有机鳞片岩性脆性高、油质好、吸附油含量低,与梭形虫相关的有机鳞片页岩油藏的采油效果更好。在青山口页岩油藏系统中,提出了与含壳岩层相关的石油迁移和积累的三个阶段的概念模型。
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引用次数: 0
Recognition of a hydrothermally linked oil accumulation process in the Tahe oil field, northwestern China, with organic geochemistry, Re-Os, and U-Pb geochronology 利用有机地球化学、Re-Os 和 U-Pb 地球年代学识别中国西北塔河油田的热液关联石油积累过程
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/02132422124
Shaojie Li, Xiaowen Guo, Bin Wang, Zicheng Cao, Hao Xu, Jiaxu Chen
The Tahe oil field is one of the largest deeply buried, multistage-charged Paleozoic oil fields in the Tarim Basin, northwestern China. Understanding the temporal evolution of Paleozoic oils is crucial for petroleum prospecting in this region. In this study, a combination of biomarker analysis, stable/radiogenic isotopic analysis, and Re-Os and U-Pb isotope geochronology is used to constrain the timing of oil accumulation in the Tahe oil field. Coexistence of unresolved complex mixture and intact n-alkane series in oil chromatograms suggests the presence of multistage oil accumulation processes in the studied area, and paleo-biodegradation occurred prior to the latest oil charge. Biomarker data show that the source rock for the latest accumulated oils was deposited in a marine reducing–weakly oxidizing environment. An early Permian oil generation event (276 ± 35 Ma) was suggested by Re-Os geochronology. This oil generation event is responsible for the late Permian–Late Triassic charge event (259.9–224.1 Ma), which is identified with in situ U-Pb isotopic analysis of calcites containing primary oil inclusions. These age data provide direct temporal constraints for the latest oil accumulation in the Tahe oil field. Furthermore, C-O-Sr-Os isotopic results show that hydrothermal fluid flowed during this oil accumulation event. Outcomes of this study unravel the Re-Os isotopic analysis of cogenetic crude oils and have the potential of direct dating the latest, hydrothermally linked oil accumulation in multistage-charged deep oil reservoirs.
塔河油田是中国西北部塔里木盆地最大的深埋多级充注古生代油田之一。了解古生代石油的时间演化对该地区的石油勘探至关重要。本研究结合生物标志物分析、稳定/放射同位素分析以及Re-Os和U-Pb同位素地质年代学,对塔河油田的石油累积时间进行了约束。石油色谱中未解决的复合混合物和完整的正烷烃系列并存,表明研究区域存在多级石油积累过程,古生物降解发生在最近一次石油充注之前。生物标志物数据表明,最近一次石油累积的源岩是在海洋还原-弱氧化环境中沉积的。Re-Os地质年代学表明,二叠纪早期(276 ± 35 Ma)发生过一次石油生成事件。这一石油生成事件是晚二叠世-晚三叠世充填事件(259.9-224.1 Ma)的原因,通过对含有原生石油包裹体的方解石进行原位 U-Pb 同位素分析,确定了这一充填事件。这些年龄数据为塔河油田最近的石油积累提供了直接的时间约束。此外,C-O-Sr-Os 同位素分析结果表明,热液曾在这一石油积累过程中流动。这项研究的结果揭示了同生原油的 Re-Os 同位素分析,有可能直接确定多级充注深层油藏中热液关联的最新石油积累的年代。
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引用次数: 0
Why does it take so long to publish a paper in the AAPG Bulletin?: Discussion 为什么在《AAPG 简报》上发表一篇论文需要这么长时间?讨论
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/04172424017
Gretchen M. Gillis
In the informative Geologic Note, “Why does it take so long to publish a paper in the AAPG Bulletin?,” Camp (2024) presents useful information for authors, prospective authors, and reviewers of manuscripts for the AAPG Bulletin that I hope will decrease the time to publication. I would like to expand on Camp’s sage advice with suggestions based on fond memories of my experience and perspectives as AAPG Editor (2007–2010).The Editor bears responsibility for managing peer review and identifying and motivating volunteer reviewers and Associate Editors. The proverbial buck stops there.Individual elected editors of the AAPG Bulletin have...
Camp (2024) 在内容翔实的《地质笔记》(Geologic Note)中写道:"为什么在 AAPG Bulletin 上发表一篇论文需要这么长时间?我想根据我作为 AAPG 编辑(2007-2010 年)的经验和观点的美好回忆,对 Camp 的睿智建议进行扩展。AAPG Bulletin 的个别当选编辑有...
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引用次数: 0
Depositional and lithological control on fractures in a steep, reefal carbonate margin: Lennard Shelf outcrops of the Canning Basin, Western Australia 陡峭暗礁碳酸盐岩边缘断裂的沉积和岩性控制:西澳大利亚坎宁盆地伦纳德大陆架露头
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/02132423039
Wayne Narr, Eric A. Flodin, Ted E. Playton, Vincent Heesakkers
A system of exceptionally well-exposed, early-burial fractures in outcrops of Devonian carbonates on the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia, serves as an analogue for fractures in deep reefal carbonate petroleum reservoirs in the Precaspian Basin of Kazakhstan. Data from early fractures were collected at Windjana Gorge, which crosscuts such a reefal depositional system. Less extensive evaluations were also made at three auxiliary sites along the Lennard Shelf.These early-formed, near-vertical fractures strike parallel or normal to the strike of the Devonian depositional margin. Fracture density correlates with the textural character of the host rock, with the highest values in boundstone-rich rock, lowest values in grain-rich rocks, and intermediate values in rocks of mixed assemblage, including breccia. Fracture density is also controlled in part by the mechanical character of bedding at the time the fracture system developed, syndepositionally or soon after. The environment of deposition (EoD) shows a weaker correlation with fracture density. At Windjana Gorge, fracture height correlates with the EoD, with the largest values in the reef core, progressing serially to shorter average height in the upper slope, middle slope, reef flat, and platform top/reef flat (a transitional EoD).To better understand the fracture size distribution within a reservoir that can influence fluid drainage, we introduce a new parameter, the intersected fracture height density (IFHD). This describes the aggregate fracture height connected directly to a traverse line or borehole. Because IFHD requires the measurement of fracture heights, it is measurable only at outcrop analogue exposures.
在西澳大利亚坎宁盆地莱纳德大陆架泥盆纪碳酸盐岩露头中,有一个异常暴露的早期埋藏断裂系统,可作为哈萨克斯坦前里海盆地深部暗礁碳酸盐岩石油储层断裂的类似物。在横贯这种暗礁沉积系统的 Windjana Gorge 收集了早期断裂的数据。这些早期形成的近垂直断裂的走向与泥盆纪沉积边缘的走向平行或垂直。断裂密度与寄主岩的纹理特征相关,富含边界岩的断裂密度最高,富含颗粒岩的断裂密度最低,混合组合岩(包括角砾岩)的断裂密度居中。断裂密度在一定程度上还受断裂系统形成时、联合沉积时或形成后不久的层理力学特征的控制。沉积环境(EoD)与断裂密度的相关性较弱。在 Windjana Gorge,断裂高度与沉积环境(EoD)相关,最大值出现在礁岩岩心,然后依次递减到上斜坡、中斜坡、礁岩平地和平台顶/礁岩平地(过渡性沉积环境)的较短平均高度。为了更好地了解储层内可能影响流体排泄的断裂大小分布,我们引入了一个新参数--交汇断裂高度密度(IFHD)。它描述了与横断线或钻孔直接相连的总裂缝高度。由于 IFHD 需要测量裂缝高度,因此只能在露头模拟揭露处进行测量。
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引用次数: 0
Why does it take so long to publish a paper in the AAPG Bulletin: Reply 为什么在《AAPG Bulletin》上发表一篇论文要花这么长时间:回复
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/04172424028
Wayne K. Camp
I thank previous AAPG Editor and former AAPG President, Gretchen Gillis, for her supportive comments and encouragement for the AAPG Bulletin Editors to help to expedite the peer review process. Issues with timely peer reviews are not limited to the Bulletin but are also experienced by other scientific journals (M. Pranter, 2024, personal communication). My analysis was based on a review of articles published in volume 107 of the Bulletin through November 2023. The results showed that most of the review period was consumed by the time required for revisions (average 12 months), which is a function of the quality...
我感谢 AAPG 前任编辑和 AAPG 前主席 Gretchen Gillis 的支持性意见,并鼓励 AAPG Bulletin 编辑加快同行评审过程。及时进行同行评审的问题并不局限于《公告》,其他科学期刊也遇到过同样的问题(M. Pranter,2024 年,个人通信)。我的分析基于对截至 2023 年 11 月《公报》第 107 卷发表文章的审查。结果表明,大部分审稿时间都耗费在修改所需的时间上(平均 12 个月),这与文章的质量有关...
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引用次数: 0
Present-day stress regime, permeability, and fracture stimulations of coal reservoirs in the Qinshui Basin, northern China 中国北方沁水盆地煤储层的现今应力体系、渗透率和裂缝激励机制
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/03202422056
Shida Chen, Yafei Zhang, Dazhen Tang, Shu Tao, Yifan Pu, Zhenhong Chen
Present-day stress, permeability, and hydraulic fracturing of coals at 323- to 1454-m (1060- to 4770-ft) depths were studied from the Qinshui Basin to analyze the influence of variable present-day stress regimes on coalbed methane productivity. The present maximum horizontal stress orientation is primarily northeast-southwest, with some local variations. Stress magnitudes generally increase with depth but with U-shaped variations in stress gradients. A strike-slip fault stress regime is dominant and is consecutively distributed vertically, whereas normal and reverse fault stress regimes are distributed mainly in specific depth intervals. Permeability (0.004–13.18 md) and stress regime present high variability, with changes in structural trends; structural lows result in a strike-slip fault stress regime and extremely low permeability (<0.1 md), and structural highs create relatively higher permeability regions with lower horizontal stress differential. Fracture stimulation designs should consider transitions in depth- and structural trends-related stress regimes and preexisting fractures, instead, using the current uniform schemes. Hydraulic fracture geometries are influenced by both stress and preexisting fractures in structural highs, occurring at multiple orientations with larger angles and allowing for greater reservoir stimulation volumes. Conversely, in structural lows, the higher differential stresses direct both major fracture and branches propagation along the maximum horizontal orientation. Most deep seams located in syncline axis, fault troughs, and subsags within the basin require a better proppant-supported profile, whereas small-scale fracturing has shown limited adaptability. Higher pumped rates and treating pressures are necessary in deep structural highs to reduce fracture complexity and improve proppant filling effectiveness.
研究了沁水盆地 323 米至 1454 米(1060 英尺至 4770 英尺)深处煤炭的现时应力、渗透率和水力压裂情况,以分析现时应力变化对煤层气生产率的影响。目前的最大水平应力方向主要是东北-西南,局部有所变化。应力大小总体上随深度增加而增大,但应力梯度呈 "U "形变化。走向滑动断层应力体系占主导地位,并在垂直方向上连续分布,而正断层和逆断层应力体系主要分布在特定深度区间。随着构造趋势的变化,渗透率(0.004-13.18 md)和应力体系呈现出很高的可变性;构造低点导致了走向滑动断层应力体系和极低的渗透率(<0.1 md),而构造高点则形成了相对较高的渗透率区域和较低的水平应力差。压裂注水设计应考虑与深度和构造趋势相关的应力体系的转变以及原有裂缝,而不是使用当前的统一方案。在构造高地,水力压裂的几何形状受到应力和原有裂缝的影响,会出现角度较大的多方向压裂,从而允许更大的储层激发量。相反,在构造低位,较高的应力差会引导主要裂缝和分支沿最大水平方向传播。大多数位于盆地内切线轴、断层槽和下陷的深层煤层需要更好的支撑剂支撑剖面,而小规模压裂的适应性有限。在深层构造高地,需要更高的泵送速率和处理压力,以降低压裂复杂性,提高支撑剂填充效果。
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引用次数: 0
Integrated approach to pore typing in complex carbonate reservoirs, Tengiz and Korolev fields, Kazakhstan 哈萨克斯坦 Tengiz 和 Korolev 油田复杂碳酸盐岩储层孔隙类型综合方法
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/03132422025
Neil F. Hurley, Ted E. Playton, Josephina Schembre-McCabe
Tengiz and Korolev fields are isolated carbonate buildups in western Kazakhstan, characterized by a range of primary rock types and fabrics in shallow-platform to slope depositional settings. These rock fabrics underwent extensive diagenetic modification from the time of deposition through deep burial, resulting in a complex paragenetic sequence with a variety of pore types. This study is focused on the Bashkirian–Serpukhovian–upper Visean interval (unit 1), which is the major oil-producing reservoir in Tengiz and Korolev fields. Most samples are from outer-platform and slope settings.Pore types are defined as collections or groups of micro- and macropores that may have different origins. These groups, which are linked to the paragenetic sequence, form characteristic assemblages that occur repeatedly in slope and platform settings. Pore types are classified based on the amount, distribution, and connectivity of micro- and macropores.Laser scanning confocal microscopy, which generates images of pores as small as 0.2 µm in diameter, provides an effective tool to visualize and quantify micropores (i.e., pores with pore diameter ≤10 µm). Confocal microscopy, combined with transmitted-light (TL) petrography, routine core analysis, and mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) data were used to designate five pore types, which include micropore-dominated, macropore-dominated, and mixed micro- and macropore-bearing rocks with variable degrees of connectivity.This approach, which offers a new way to define complex pore families that correlate to reservoir-property groups, applies to any carbonate reservoir. This integrated petrographic and petrophysical classification links pore-body (confocal and TL) and pore-throat (MICP) size distributions. Future work includes prediction of pore types from logs and development of strategies for spatial distribution of pore types between wells in full-field geologic models.
腾吉兹油田和科罗廖夫油田是哈萨克斯坦西部孤立的碳酸盐岩堆积层,其特点是在浅地台到斜坡沉积环境中具有一系列原生岩石类型和构造。从沉积到深埋,这些岩石结构经历了广泛的成岩改造,形成了具有各种孔隙类型的复杂副成岩序列。这项研究的重点是巴什基尔-塞普霍维-上维谢安岩层(第 1 单元),该岩层是腾吉兹和科罗廖夫油田的主要产油层。大多数样本来自外平台和斜坡环境。孔隙类型被定义为可能具有不同来源的微孔和大孔隙的集合或组群。孔隙类型被定义为微孔和大孔隙的集合或组群,它们可能来自不同的地方。这些组群与准成岩序列有关,形成了在斜坡和平台环境中重复出现的特征集合。激光扫描共聚焦显微镜可生成直径小至 0.2 微米的孔隙图像,是观察和量化微孔(即孔径小于 10 微米的孔隙)的有效工具。共聚焦显微镜与透射光(TL)岩石学、常规岩心分析和注汞毛细管压力(MICP)数据相结合,用于指定五种孔隙类型,包括微孔主导型、大孔主导型以及具有不同连通度的含微孔和大孔混合型岩石。这种岩石学和岩石物理学综合分类将孔隙体(共焦和 TL)和孔喉(MICP)尺寸分布联系起来。未来的工作包括根据测井结果预测孔隙类型,以及开发全油田地质模型中油井间孔隙类型的空间分布策略。
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引用次数: 0
Microfracture classification, quantification, and petrophysical behavior in the Tengiz and Korolev carbonate reservoirs, Kazakhstan 哈萨克斯坦腾吉兹和科罗廖夫碳酸盐岩储层的微裂缝分类、量化和岩石物理行为
IF 3.5 3区 地球科学 Q2 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-08-01 DOI: 10.1306/03132422024
Neil F. Hurley, Ted E. Playton, Josephina Schembre-McCabe
The purpose of this study is to classify and quantify predominantly open microfractures in the subsurface Tengiz and Korolev carbonate reservoirs of western Kazakhstan. Microfractures, previously unknown in these fields, occur in nearly all of hundreds of the thin sections examined using transmitted-light (TL) and confocal microscopy. This study, done in carbonate rocks, differs from most previous work on microfractures, which mainly concentrates on silica-bearing rocks (sandstones and granites) and sealed (cemented), rather than open, microfractures.Microfractures in Tengiz and Korolev rocks are obscure or invisible using TL petrography. However, they are clearly visible in high-resolution (0.2 μm/pixel) laser-scanning confocal images. In decreasing order of abundance, we observed the following microfracture types: (1) dissolution-enlarged microfractures, (2) mosaic microfractures, (3) sealed and partially sealed microfractures lined with carbonate cement and/or bitumen, (4) intercrystalline microfractures in echinoderm fragments and coarse blocky calcite cements, (5) en echelon microfractures, (6) sediment-filled microfractures, (7) microfaults and deformation bands, (8) microfracture ganglia, and (9) reaction halos in the matrix near open microfractures. All microfracture types are interpreted to be natural, as opposed to induced features.Microfracture quantification, used here to determine the amount of open microfracture porosity in two-dimensional confocal images, has been applied to more than 300 samples. Microfracture porosity typically ranges from 0.2 to 1.0 porosity units. Aperture widths are generally on the order of 0.2 to 10 μm.A unique feature of this study is the relationship between dynamic properties and the amounts and types of microfractures observed in the rocks. Specifically, microfracture abundance relates to the effect of variable confining pressure on porosity and permeability in core plugs. Samples in which total confocal porosity is dominated (>80%) by microfractures, mainly upper-slope boundstones, showed moderate decreases in porosity and major decreases in permeability as a function of increased confining pressure. Samples in which microfractures are a relatively minor component (<20%) of total confocal porosity, mainly middle-slope breccias and grainstones and outer-platform grainstones, showed significantly smaller decreases in porosity and permeability as a function of increased confining pressure. Hysteresis effects, especially for permeability, are common. In conclusion, in reservoirs with open microfractures, core-plug scale permeability is subject to change with variable confining pressure. This mode of permeability variation should be considered in reservoir models conditioned by core-plug results.
本研究的目的是对哈萨克斯坦西部地下 Tengiz 和 Korolev 碳酸盐岩储层中主要开放的微裂缝进行分类和量化。在使用透射光(TL)显微镜和共聚焦显微镜检查的数百个薄片中,几乎全部出现了以前在这些油田中不为人知的微裂缝。这项研究是在碳酸盐岩中进行的,与之前大多数关于微裂隙的研究不同,之前的研究主要集中在含硅岩(砂岩和花岗岩)和密封(胶结)而非开放的微裂隙上。然而,在高分辨率(0.2 微米/像素)激光扫描共焦图像中,它们却清晰可见。按照丰度递减的顺序,我们观察到以下几种微裂缝类型:(1)溶解扩大的微裂缝;(2)镶嵌微裂缝;(3)内衬碳酸盐胶结物和/或沥青的密封和部分密封微裂缝;(4)棘皮动物碎片和粗块状方解石胶结物中的晶间微裂缝、(5) 梯状微裂隙;(6) 充满沉积物的微裂隙;(7) 微断层和变形带;(8) 微裂隙神经节;(9) 开放微裂隙附近基质中的反应晕。所有微裂缝类型都被解释为天然特征,而非诱导特征。微裂缝量化技术在此用于确定二维共聚焦图像中开放微裂缝孔隙度的数量,已应用于 300 多个样本。微裂隙孔隙度通常在 0.2 到 1.0 孔隙度单位之间。这项研究的一个独特之处在于其动态特性与岩石中观察到的微裂隙数量和类型之间的关系。具体来说,微裂隙的丰度与岩心堵塞中可变约束压力对孔隙度和渗透率的影响有关。总共焦孔隙度以微裂隙为主(大于 80%)的样本(主要是上斜坡结合岩)显示,随着圈闭压力的增加,孔隙度适度下降,渗透率大幅下降。微裂隙在共焦孔隙度总量中所占比例相对较小(<20%)的样本,主要是中坡角砾岩和粒岩以及外平台粒岩,其孔隙度和渗透率随圈闭压力增加而下降的幅度要小得多。滞后效应很常见,尤其是渗透率。总之,在具有开放性微裂缝的储层中,岩心-岩芯规模的渗透率会随着圈闭压力的变化而变化。在以岩心-岩块结果为条件的储层模型中,应考虑这种渗透率变化模式。
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引用次数: 0
Estimating Post-Depositional Detrital Remanent Magnetization (pDRM) Effects for Several Lacustrine and Marine Sediment Records Using a Flexible Lock-In Function Approach 利用灵活的锁定函数法估算若干湖沼和海洋沉积物记录的沉积后残余磁化(pDRM)效应
IF 3.9 2区 地球科学 Q1 GEOCHEMISTRY & GEOPHYSICS Pub Date : 2024-07-19 DOI: 10.1029/2024jb028864
L. Bohsung, M. Schanner, M. Korte, M. Holschneider
Geomagnetic field models over past millennia rely on two main data sources: archeomagnetic data provide snapshots of the geomagnetic field at specific locations, and sediment records deliver time series of the geomagnetic field at specific locations. The limited temporal and spatial coverage of archeomagnetic data necessitates the incorporation of sediment data especially when models go further back in time. When working with sediment data one should consider the post-depositional detrital remanent magnetization (pDRM) process, which can cause delayed and smoothed signals. To address the distortion associated with the pDRM process a Bayesian modeling technique incorporating archeomagnetic data and a class of flexible parameterized lock-in functions has been proposed. In this study, we investigate this method in more detail and apply it to declination and inclination of several lacustrine and marine sediment records. Data-driven results support the hypothesis that the pDRM process can introduce distortions, including offsets and smoothing, in some lacustrine and marine sediment records. We demonstrate a correction approach to minimize the distortion caused by the pDRM process and its impact on geomagnetic field reconstructions. The variability in the results observed across the nine records points to a potential dependence on sedimentological characteristics. To explore this further, we plan to systematically apply our novel method to a larger number of records in future studies.
过去几千年的地磁场模型主要依靠两个数据源:考古地磁数据提供特定地点的地磁场快照,沉积物记录提供特定地点的地磁场时间序列。由于考古地磁数据在时间和空间上的覆盖范围有限,因此有必要纳入沉积物数据,尤其是当模型追溯到更远的时间时。在处理沉积物数据时,应考虑沉积后的碎屑重磁化(pDRM)过程,该过程会导致信号延迟和平滑。为了解决与 pDRM 过程相关的失真问题,有人提出了一种结合考古地磁数据和一类灵活的参数化锁定函数的贝叶斯建模技术。在本研究中,我们对这一方法进行了更详细的研究,并将其应用于若干湖沼和海洋沉积记录的倾角和偏角。数据驱动的结果支持这样的假设,即 pDRM 过程会在某些湖沼和海洋沉积记录中引入失真,包括偏移和平滑。我们展示了一种校正方法,以尽量减少 pDRM 过程造成的失真及其对地磁场重建的影响。在九条记录中观察到的结果差异表明可能与沉积特征有关。为了进一步探讨这一问题,我们计划在今后的研究中将我们的新方法系统地应用于更多的记录。
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引用次数: 0
Majority of global river flow sustained by groundwater 全球大部分河流流量靠地下水维持
IF 18.3 1区 地球科学 Q1 GEOSCIENCES, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-19 DOI: 10.1038/s41561-024-01483-5
Jiaxin Xie, Xiaomang Liu, Scott Jasechko, Wouter R. Berghuijs, Kaiwen Wang, Changming Liu, Markus Reichstein, Martin Jung, Sujan Koirala

Groundwater-sustained baseflow is a vital source of river flow, especially during dry seasons. The proportion of river flow sustained by baseflow—the baseflow index—is essential for assessing fluvial nutrient cycling and contaminant transport. However, the global baseflow index remains highly uncertain, with current Earth system model simulations ranging from 12% to 94%. Here we estimate the global baseflow index to be 59% ± 7% based on an emergent constraint approach, which integrates 50 Earth system models with baseflow indices derived from streamflow observations in 15,567 basins. Our observational constraint indicates that at least 21% ± 3% of precipitation recharges groundwater, which is approximately double the figure reported in the Sixth Assessment Report of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Thus, our research suggests a more active role of groundwater in the global water cycle than most Earth system models currently simulate. We present evidence that the considerable disagreement in simulated baseflow stems from unrealistic and varied model representations of infiltration, aquifer structure and groundwater dynamics. These processes should be prioritized so that models can capture active groundwater–river connections.

地下水维持的基流是河流流量的重要来源,尤其是在干旱季节。基流维持的河流流量比例--基流指数--对于评估河流营养循环和污染物迁移至关重要。然而,全球基流指数仍然存在很大的不确定性,目前地球系统模型模拟的基流指数从 12% 到 94% 不等。在这里,我们根据一种新出现的约束方法,将 50 个地球系统模型与从 15567 个流域的溪流观测中得出的基流指数相结合,估计全球基流指数为 59% ± 7%。我们的观测约束表明,至少有 21% ± 3% 的降水补给了地下水,这大约是联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会第六次评估报告中报告的数字的两倍。因此,我们的研究表明,地下水在全球水循环中的作用比目前大多数地球系统模型模拟的更为积极。我们提出的证据表明,模拟基流中存在的巨大差异源于模型对渗透、含水层结构和地下水动态不切实际的不同描述。应优先考虑这些过程,以便模型能够捕捉到地下水与河流之间的活跃联系。
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