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Heralded generation of displaced qudits from quantum optical catalysis 从量子光学催化中预示性地产生位移量子点
IF 1.5 4区 物理与天体物理 Q3 OPTICS Pub Date : 2024-07-18 DOI: 10.1140/epjd/s10053-024-00893-9
Devibala Esakkimuthu, Merlin Jayapaul, A. B. M. A. Abduljaffer
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引用次数: 0
Dendrite growth under a forced convective flow: A review 强制对流下的树枝状晶生长:综述
IF 23.9 1区 物理与天体物理 Q1 PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1016/j.physrep.2024.06.005

As one of the representative patterns in nature and laboratory experiments, dendritic structures control the properties of a broad range of advanced materials. Dendrites arise during different phase and structural transformation processes. Generally, the formation of dendritic structures are stipulated by transport processes in bulk phases, together with thermodynamic properties and kinetic phenomena at the phase interfaces. The formation of a dendritic microstructure under the influence of external fields (electromagnetic and gravitational) is considered in this review. These fields involve the liquid and gaseous phases in a forced convective flow, causing the transfer of energy and matter in addition to the usual conductive (diffusion) transport. The formulated model takes into account rapid solidification from an undercooled liquid phase as well as intermediate and low growth velocities of dendritic crystals in pure one-component systems extended to binary mixtures and alloys. The areas of undercooling are identified, in which the influence of convection caused by the electromagnetic and/or gravitational field is most noticeable. The solidification regimes (from the diffusion-limited mode to the thermally and kinetically controlled mode) are reviewed in connection with the different liquid flow velocities that dictate various boundary conditions (conductive and convective) on the surface of growing crystals. A comparison of model predictions with experimental data and computational results provides the grounds for a discussion about the applicability of the formulated model to interpreting known and unexpected phenomena in the formation of a crystalline structure. By changing the power of the considered fields or reducing them almost to zero (for instance, in microgravity), it is possible to control the dispersion of a dendritic microstructure, as well as separate accompanying phases (eutectic, peritectic, monotectic, intermetallic phases, etc.) during the solidification of materials and, in the general case, during phase transformations.

树枝状结构是自然界和实验室实验中的代表性形态之一,它控制着各种先进材料的特性。树枝状结构产生于不同的相变和结构转变过程。一般来说,树枝状结构的形成是由体相中的传输过程以及相界面的热力学特性和动力学现象决定的。本综述考虑了在外部场(电磁场和重力场)影响下树枝状微结构的形成。这些场涉及强制对流中的液相和气相,除了通常的传导(扩散)传输外,还引起能量和物质的传输。所建立的模型考虑到了从过冷液相开始的快速凝固,以及在纯单组分系统中延伸到二元混合物和合金中的树枝状晶体的中低生长速度。确定了冷却不足的区域,在这些区域中,电磁场和/或重力场造成的对流影响最为显著。结合晶体生长表面的各种边界条件(传导和对流)所决定的不同液体流速,回顾了凝固机制(从扩散受限模式到热控和动力学控制模式)。将模型预测与实验数据和计算结果进行比较,为讨论制定的模型是否适用于解释晶体结构形成过程中的已知和意外现象提供了依据。通过改变所考虑的场的功率或将其几乎降为零(例如在微重力条件下),可以控制树枝状微结构的分散,以及在材料凝固过程中和一般情况下在相变过程中分离伴生相(共晶相、共晶相、单共晶相、金属间相等)。
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引用次数: 0
New spectroscopic data on odd-parity autoionization states of atomic lutetium 原子镥奇偶性自电离状态的新光谱数据
IF 1.425 4区 物理与天体物理 Q3 OPTICS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjd/s10053-024-00892-w
Zhang Jun-Yao, Lu Xiao-Yong, Li Yun-Fei, Chai Jun-Jie

A three-color three-step resonance ionization mass spectroscopy technique was explored to investigate the odd-parity autoionization states of atomic lutetium, covering a range from 51,850 to 55,000 cm−1. By applying Fano fitting to the spectral analysis, we successfully identified 98 autoionization states, with 69 of which had never been reported. We also determined the half-width and transition strength for all identified states. Additionally, the lifetime of the excited state at 36,769.25 cm−1 was measured. This work provides the most comprehensive dataset to date on the complex odd-parity autoionization states of atomic lutetium, offering essential insights for enhancing the efficiency of resonant photoionization processes and understanding the atomic autoionization structure of lutetium.

Graphical abstract

我们利用三色三步共振电离质谱技术研究了原子镥的奇偶性自电离状态,范围从 51,850 到 55,000 cm-1。通过对光谱分析进行法诺拟合,我们成功地确定了 98 种自电离状态,其中 69 种从未被报道过。我们还确定了所有已确定状态的半宽和过渡强度。此外,我们还测量了位于 36,769.25 cm-1 处激发态的寿命。这项工作提供了迄今为止关于原子镥的复杂奇偶性自电离状态的最全面的数据集,为提高共振光电离过程的效率和了解镥的原子自电离结构提供了重要的见解。
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引用次数: 0
Electric Penrose, circular orbits and collisions of charged particles near charged black holes in Kalb–Ramond gravity 电彭罗斯,卡尔布-拉蒙特引力中带电黑洞附近带电粒子的圆形轨道和碰撞
IF 4.59 2区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-024-13061-5
Muhammad Zahid, Javlon Rayimbaev, Nuriddin Kurbonov, Saidmuhammad Ahmedov, Chao Shen, Ahmadjon Abdujabbarov

General relativity (GR) is a well-tested theory of gravity in strong and weak field regimes. Many modifications to this theory were obtained, including different scalar, vector, and tensor fields to the GR with non-minimal coupling to gravity. Kalb–Ramond (KR) gravity is also a modified theory formulated in the presence of a bosonic field. One astrophysical way to test gravity is by studying the motion of test particles in the spacetime of black holes (BH). In this work, we study the circular motion of charged particles and explore energetic processes around charged BHs in KR theory. First, we investigated the event horizon radius and analyzed horizon-no horizon regions in the BH charge and KR parameter space. Considering the Coulomb interaction, we derive and analyze the effective potential for charged particles around a charged KR BH. We investigate charged particles’ angular momentum and energy corresponding to circular orbits. We also investigate how the KR non-minimal coupling parameter affects the radius of the innermost stable circular orbits, the corresponding energy, and the angular momentum. We also investigated the electric Penrose process and charged-particle collisions near the KR BH. The presence of the nonzero KR parameter results in a decrease in the energy efficiency of the Penrose process. Also obtained is that the KR parameter’s positive (negative) values cause a decrease (increase) in the center of mass energy of colliding particles near the BH horizon.

广义相对论(GR)是在强场和弱场条件下经过充分检验的引力理论。人们对这一理论进行了许多修正,包括将不同的标量场、矢量场和张量场修正为与引力非最小耦合的广义相对论。卡尔布-拉蒙(Kalb-Ramond,KR)引力也是在存在玻色场的情况下提出的一种修正理论。测试引力的一种天体物理学方法是研究黑洞(BH)时空中的测试粒子运动。在这项工作中,我们研究了带电粒子的圆周运动,并探索了 KR 理论中带电黑洞周围的能量过程。首先,我们研究了事件视界半径,并分析了黑洞电荷和KR参数空间中的视界-无视界区域。考虑到库仑相互作用,我们推导并分析了带电粒子在带电KR BH周围的有效势能。我们研究了带电粒子对应于圆形轨道的角动量和能量。我们还研究了 KR 非最小耦合参数如何影响最内层稳定圆形轨道的半径、相应的能量和角动量。我们还研究了 KR BH 附近的电彭罗斯过程和带电粒子碰撞。非零 KR 参数的存在导致彭罗斯过程的能量效率下降。我们还发现,KR 参数的正(负)值会导致 BH 边界附近碰撞粒子的质心能量减小(增大)。
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引用次数: 0
Microscopic state equation for oscillator chains 振荡器链的微观状态方程
IF 3.911 3区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjp/s13360-024-05419-1
Vincenzo Di Florio, Claudio Giberti, Lamberto Rondoni, Hong Zhao

Systems allowing anomalous transport of mass, momentum energy, etc., such as low-dimensional particles systems or highly confining media, are hard to characterize thermodynamically. Indeed, local thermodynamic equilibrium may not be established and their behaviour often strongly depends on many microscopic parameters, including the symmetry of the interaction potentials. Thermodynamic state equations, on the other hand, involve a small set of observables, which are obtained averaging in time and over the large number of particles that populate mesoscopic cells in which local equilibrium can be realized. In this work we show that a linear relation discovered earlier, that connects the average distance between pairs of consecutive particles with their kinetic energy, applies to quite a large set of 1-dimensional particle systems known to produce anomalous transport. This relation is microscopic in nature, since the quantities involved are neither averaged over many particles, neither over very large times. Nevertheless, its robustness is under variations of the external parameters, and the limited set of quantities it involves qualify it as a state equation, analogously to thermodynamic relations. We provide conditions for which the relation can be violated within a limited range of parameters values, and we find that it can be extended to two-dimensional networks of coupled oscillators. The validity of this relation further shows that the states of aggregation of matter in low-dimensional systems are often different from standard macroscopic ones.

允许质量、动量能量等反常传输的系统,如低维粒子系统或高度约束介质,很难从热力学角度表征。事实上,局部热力学平衡可能无法建立,而且它们的行为往往在很大程度上取决于许多微观参数,包括相互作用势的对称性。另一方面,热力学状态方程涉及一小组观测值,这些观测值是通过时间平均和大量粒子得到的,这些粒子填充了可以实现局部平衡的介观单元。在这项工作中,我们证明了早先发现的一种线性关系,它将连续粒子对之间的平均距离与它们的动能联系起来,适用于已知会产生反常输运的大量一维粒子系统。这种关系是微观性质的,因为所涉及的量既不是许多粒子的平均值,也不是很大时间的平均值。尽管如此,它在外部参数变化的情况下仍具有稳健性,而且它所涉及的有限数量集合使其成为一个状态方程,类似于热力学关系。我们提供了在有限的参数值范围内违反该关系的条件,并发现它可以扩展到耦合振荡器的二维网络。这一关系的有效性进一步表明,低维系统中物质的聚集状态往往不同于标准的宏观状态。
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引用次数: 0
Crystal channeling investigations at medical synchrotron regimes 医用同步辐射光束下的晶体沟道研究
IF 3.911 3区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjp/s13360-024-05424-4
Roberto Rossi, Attilio Andreazza, Matteo Bauce, Antonio Carbone, Saverio D’Auria, Marco Garattini, Geoff Hall, Tommaso Lari, Alessio Mereghetti, Mark Pesaresi, Marco Pullia, Paolo Valente, Alessandro Variola, Riccardo Zanzottera, Walter Scandale

An experimental setup to investigate ion channeling in the hundreds MeV/u energy range is described. A short bent crystal, aligned to the incoming beam by an angular actuator, should deflect ions into a single plane pixel detector used to identify channeled and unchanneled particles. In order to enhance the footprint of channeling on the recorded signals, the incoming particle emittance is tailored on the crystalline plane acceptance by means of massive collimators. Numerical simulations of low energy carbon ions are performed with FLUKA to fully understand the measurement conditions demonstrate the feasibility of the test, to be performed in the experimental room of the National Center for Oncological Hadrontherapy accelerator complex in Pavia, Italy.

本文介绍了一种用于研究数百 MeV/u 能量范围内离子通道的实验装置。一个短的弯曲晶体通过一个角度致动器对准射入的光束,将离子偏转到一个用于识别通道和非通道粒子的单平面像素探测器中。为了增强通道对所记录信号的影响,可通过大量准直器对晶体平面上的入射粒子发射率进行调整。使用 FLUKA 对低能量碳离子进行了数值模拟,以充分了解测量条件,证明测试的可行性。
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引用次数: 0
Two $$beta $$ -ensemble realization of $$beta $$ -deformed WLZZ models 两个 $$beta $$ -变形 WLZZ 模型的集合实现
IF 4.59 2区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-024-13067-z
A. Mironov, A. Oreshina, A. Popolitov

We consider a two (beta )-ensemble realization of the series of (beta )-deformed WLZZ matrix models. We demonstrate that such a realization involves (beta )-deformed Harish-Chandra–Itzykson–Zuber integrals, one of them providing a coupling to the external field. We also construct Ward identities in the corresponding two (beta )-ensemble model, which requires a set of identities for partition function of the one (beta )-ensemble in the external field, and a set of identities for the (beta )-deformed Itzykson-Zuber integral. These both sets of identities are formulated in terms of the Dunkl operators.

我们考虑的是(beta )-变形的WLZZ矩阵模型系列的两个(beta )-集合的实现。我们证明这样的实现涉及到 (beta )-变形的哈里什-钱德拉-伊齐克森-祖贝尔积分,其中一个积分提供了与外部场的耦合。我们还在相应的二(beta)-集合模型中构造了沃德(Ward)等价物,这需要一组外部场中一(beta)-集合的分割函数的等价物,以及一组(beta)-变形的伊齐克森-祖伯(Itzykson-Zuber)积分的等价物。这两组等式都是用邓克尔算子表示的。
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引用次数: 0
Investigation of high spin properties of $$^{55}$$ Cr in deformed Hartree–Fock and angular momentum projection model 在变形哈特里-福克和角动量投影模型中研究 $$^{55}$$ Cr 的高自旋特性
IF 2.219 4区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1007/s12043-024-02739-w
Nandita Kar, Zashmir Naik

The rotational bands of (^{55})Cr are studied with deformed Hartree–Fock (HF) and angular momentum projection techniques. Energy spectra are calculated up to high spin values (J={37/2}^+). Configuration mixing is performed between different rotational aligned (RAL) bands and the band-mixed result is compared with the experimental bands. One-, three- and five-quasiparticle bands are studied here. Except these, we also predict some structural properties like magnetic dipole moment ((mu )), static quadrupole moment ((Q_0)) and spectroscopic quadrupole moment ((Q_s)) along with deformation parameter for future verification. We used our microscopic model to predict band structures in the high K region too. Reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B(E2) and B(M1) values are calculated for all bands. Signature effect has been observed in low K spectra as well as in reduced transition probabilities.

利用变形哈特里-福克(HF)和角动量投影技术研究了(^{55})铬的旋转带。计算了高达高自旋值(J={37/2}^+)的能谱。在不同的旋转排列(RAL)波段之间进行了构型混合,并将波段混合结果与实验波段进行了比较。这里研究了单、三和五准粒子带。除此以外,我们还预测了一些结构特性,如磁偶极矩((mu ))、静态四极矩((Q_0))和光谱四极矩((Q_s))以及形变参数,以供将来验证。我们还利用我们的微观模型预测了高 K 区的能带结构。我们计算了所有波段的还原转变概率,即 B(E2) 和 B(M1) 值。在低 K 光谱和降低的转变概率中都观察到了特征效应。
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引用次数: 0
Study of double-diffusive gravity modulated biothermal convection in porous media under internal heating effect 内部加热效应下多孔介质中的双扩散重力调制生物热对流研究
IF 3.911 3区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjp/s13360-024-05427-1
P. A. Akhila, B. Patil Mallikarjun, Palle Kiran, Ali J. Chamkha

Double diffusion combined with thermo-bioconvection in porous media under two prominent effects such as gravity modulation and internal heating are considered in the present work. The impact of considering double diffusion and porous medium in the current problem is studied graphically. We deal with linear and weakly nonlinear theory of the system. Linear theory helps in the analysis of onset of convection. The stability of the system is also discussed in this section. Onset of convection is governed by critical(threshold) Rayleigh number (text {Ra}_c). The marginal stability curves are plotted between critical Rayleigh number and wavenumber for all the parameters that exist in the study which helps in analyzing the stability of the system. Weakly nonlinear stability analysis is carried out to study heat and mass transfer in the system. Due to the gravity modulation, there arise amplitude and frequency for the corresponding fluid under convection. From such nonlinear study, we arrive at an amplitude equation called Ginzburg–Landau (GL) equation. Further, on solving GL equation, we discuss heat and mass transfer in terms of Nusselt number Nu and Sherwood number Sh. The graphical study of heat and mass transfer is performed by plotting Nu versus time scale (tau) and Sh against (tau), respectively, for various parameters existing in the study. The convection cells arise due to temperature difference between the horizontal plates are shown in the form of streamlines and isotherms.

本研究考虑了多孔介质在重力调制和内部加热两种显著效应下的双重扩散与热生物对流。我们以图形方式研究了在当前问题中考虑双重扩散和多孔介质的影响。我们讨论了系统的线性和弱非线性理论。线性理论有助于分析对流的发生。本节还讨论了系统的稳定性。对流的发生受临界(阈值)瑞利数(text {Ra}_c )的制约。在临界瑞利数和研究中存在的所有参数的波数之间绘制了边际稳定性曲线,这有助于分析系统的稳定性。弱非线性稳定性分析用于研究系统中的传热和传质。由于重力调制,相应的对流流体会产生振幅和频率。通过这种非线性研究,我们得出了一个振幅方程,称为金兹堡-朗道(GL)方程。此外,在求解 GL 方程时,我们还讨论了努塞尔特数 Nu 和舍伍德数 Sh 的传热和传质问题。通过绘制 Nu 与时间尺度 (tau)和 Sh 与 (tau)的关系图,对研究中存在的各种参数分别进行了传热和传质的图形研究。水平板之间的温差导致的对流单元以流线和等温线的形式显示。
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引用次数: 0
Neutrino oscillations in matter using the adjugate of the Hamiltonian 利用哈密顿的邻接法研究物质中的中微子振荡
IF 4.59 2区 物理与天体物理 Q2 PHYSICS, PARTICLES & FIELDS Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-024-12885-5
Asli Abdullahi, Stephen J. Parke

We revisit neutrino oscillations in constant matter density for a number of different scenarios: three flavors with the standard Wolfenstein matter potential, four flavors with standard matter potential and three flavors with non-standard matter potentials. To calculate the oscillation probabilities for these scenarios one must determine the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Hamiltonians. We use a method for calculating the eigenvalues that is well known, determination of the zeros of determinant of matrix ((lambda I -H)), where H is the Hamiltonian, I the identity matrix and (lambda ) is a scalar. To calculate the associated eigenvectors we use a method that is little known in the particle physics community, the calculation of the adjugate (transpose of the cofactor matrix) of the same matrix, ((lambda I -H)). This method can be applied to any Hamiltonian, but provides a very simple way to determine the eigenvectors for neutrino oscillation in matter, independent of the complexity of the matter potential. This method can be trivially automated using the Faddeev–LeVerrier algorithm for numerical calculations. For the above scenarios we derive a number of quantities that are invariant of the matter potential, many are new such as the generalization of the Naumov–Harrison–Scott identity for four or more flavors of neutrinos. We also show how these matter potential independent quantities become matter potential dependent when off-diagonal non-standard matter effects are included.

我们重新研究了恒定物质密度下中微子振荡的几种不同情况:标准沃芬斯坦物质势的三种味道、标准物质势的四种味道和非标准物质势的三种味道。要计算这些情况下的振荡概率,必须确定哈密顿的特征值和特征向量。我们使用一种众所周知的方法来计算特征值,即确定矩阵((lambda I -H))的行列式的零点,其中H是哈密顿,I是特征矩阵,(lambda )是标量。为了计算相关的特征向量,我们使用了一种在粒子物理学界鲜为人知的方法,即计算同一矩阵的副矩阵(辅因子矩阵的转置),((lambda I -H))。这种方法可以应用于任何哈密顿,但提供了一种非常简单的方法来确定物质中中微子振荡的特征向量,与物质势的复杂性无关。使用法德耶夫-勒韦里耶算法进行数值计算,这种方法可以实现微不足道的自动化。针对上述情况,我们推导出了许多与物质势无关的量,其中许多是新的量,如四味或更多味中微子的瑙莫夫-哈里森-斯科特特性的广义化。我们还展示了当包括非对角线非标准物质效应时,这些与物质势无关的量是如何变得与物质势相关的。
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引用次数: 0
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