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First detection of Omicron variant BA.4.1 lineage in dogs, Chile. 首次在智利的狗中检测到 Omicron 变异 BA.4.1 系。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-01-04 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2023.2298089
B Agüero, F Berrios, C Pardo-Roa, N Ariyama, B Bennett, R A Medina, V Neira

SARS-CoV-2's rapid global spread caused the declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020. Alongside humans, domestic dogs and cats are also susceptible to infection. However, limited reports on pet infections in Chile prompted a comprehensive study to address this knowledge gap. Between March 2021 and March 2023, the study assessed 65 pets (26 dogs and 39 cats) from 33 COVID-19+ households alongside 700 nasal swabs from animals in households with unknown COVID-19 status. Using RT-PCR, nasal, fecal, and environmental samples were analyzed for the virus. In COVID-19+ households, 6.06% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, belonging to 3 dogs, indicating human-to-pet transmission. Pets from households with unknown COVID-19 status tested negative for the virus. We obtained 2 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from animals, that belonged to Omicron BA.4.1 variant, marking the first report of pets infected with this lineage globally. Phylogenetic analysis showed these sequences clustered with human sequences collected in Chile during the same period when the BA.4.1 variant was prevalent in the country. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Chilean pets was relatively low, likely due to the country's high human vaccination rate. Our study highlights the importance of upholding and strengthening human vaccination strategies to mitigate the risk of interspecies transmission. It underscores the critical role of the One Health approach in addressing emerging zoonotic diseases, calling for further research on infection dynamics and risk factors for a comprehensive understanding.

由于 SARS-CoV-2 在全球迅速传播,COVID-19 于 2020 年 3 月被宣布为大流行病。除了人类,家养的狗和猫也很容易受到感染。然而,智利有关宠物感染的报道有限,因此需要开展一项综合研究来填补这一知识空白。2021 年 3 月至 2023 年 3 月期间,该研究对来自 33 个 COVID-19+ 家庭的 65 只宠物(26 只狗和 39 只猫)以及来自 COVID-19 状态未知家庭的 700 份动物鼻拭子进行了评估。通过 RT-PCR,对鼻腔、粪便和环境样本进行了病毒分析。在 COVID-19+ 的家庭中,有 6.06% 的人对 SARS-CoV-2 呈阳性反应,其中有 3 只狗,这表明病毒在人与宠物之间传播。COVID-19 状态不明的家庭中的宠物对病毒检测呈阴性。我们从动物身上获得了 2 个属于 Omicron BA.4.1 变种的 SARS-CoV-2 基因组,这是全球首次报告宠物感染该病毒系。系统进化分析表明,这些序列与在智利收集到的人类序列聚类,而在同一时期,BA.4.1 变种在智利流行。SARS-CoV-2 在智利宠物中的流行率相对较低,这可能是由于智利的人类疫苗接种率较高。我们的研究强调了坚持和加强人类疫苗接种策略以降低物种间传播风险的重要性。它强调了 "统一健康 "方法在应对新出现的人畜共患疾病中的关键作用,呼吁进一步研究感染动态和风险因素,以全面了解情况。
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引用次数: 0
Evaluation of the clinical usefulness of pancreatic alpha amylase as a novel biomarker in dogs with acute pancreatitis: a pilot study. 评估胰腺α-淀粉酶作为一种新型生物标记物在犬急性胰腺炎患者中的临床实用性:一项试点研究。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-03-18 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2326007
Keon Kim, Hee-Hong Kim, Jae-Beom Joo, Ock-Kyu Kim, Sin-Wook Park, Guk-Hyun Suh, Woong-Bin Ro, Chang-Min Lee

Pancreatic alpha amylase (P-AMY) is used as a biomarker of acute pancreatitis (AP) in human medicine. To our knowledge, there are no studies evaluating the usefulness of P-AMY in dogs with AP. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of P-AMY, currently not verified in veterinary medicine. The AP group (n = 40) consisted of dogs with AP diagnosed using clinical signs and laboratory examinations, including abnormal canine pancreatic lipase (cPL) concentration, and compatible abdominal ultrasound examination at first presentation. Evaluation of the canine AP severity (CAPS) score was performed. The control group (n = 38) was composed of normal dogs without any abnormalities in clinical findings, blood exams or diagnostic imaging. The correlation of P-AMY with cPL was confirmed by Pearson's correlation analysis (r = 0.564, p < .001). The sensitivity and specificity for the most appropriate cut-off values of P-AMY were recorded similar to the values of DGGR. The dogs with AP and CAPS ≥11 had significantly higher serum P-AMY (p = .016) contrary to DGGR lipase and cPL. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the median P-AMY dependent on the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (p = .001). P-AMY showed similar level of diagnostic accuracy along with sensitivity and specificity compared to DGGR lipase. In addition, P-AMY showed a significant association with CAPS score, contrary to cPL and DGGR lipase. Along with other biomarkers associated with AP, P-AMY has the potential of usefulness as a supportive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of AP in dogs.

在人类医学中,胰腺α-淀粉酶(P-AMY)被用作急性胰腺炎(AP)的生物标志物。据我们所知,目前还没有研究评估 P-AMY 在犬急性胰腺炎患者中的作用。在这项研究中,我们评估了 P-AMY 的诊断价值,目前在兽医学中尚未得到验证。AP 组(n = 40)由首次发病时通过临床症状和实验室检查(包括犬胰脂肪酶(cPL)浓度异常)以及腹部超声波检查确诊为 AP 的犬组成。对犬 AP 严重程度(CAPS)进行了评估。对照组(n = 38)由临床表现、血液检查或诊断成像均无异常的正常犬组成。Pearson 相关性分析(r = 0.564,p p = .016)证实了 P-AMY 与 cPL 的相关性,与 DGGR 脂肪酶和 cPL 的相关性相反。此外,P-AMY 的中位数与全身炎症反应综合征的存在有显著差异(p = .001)。与 DGGR 脂肪酶相比,P-AMY 显示出相似的诊断准确性、灵敏度和特异性。此外,与 cPL 和 DGGR 脂肪酶相比,P-AMY 与 CAPS 评分有显著关联。与其他与 AP 相关的生物标记物一起,P-AMY 有可能成为狗 AP 的辅助诊断和预后生物标记物。
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引用次数: 0
Live performance, nutrient digestibility, immune response and fecal microbial load modulation in Japanese quails fed a Bacillus-based probiotic alone or combination with xylanase. 单独或与木聚糖酶联合使用芽孢杆菌益生菌喂养日本鹌鹑的活体表现、营养消化率、免疫反应和粪便微生物负荷调节。
IF 7.9 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-06-21 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2364641
Asad Sultan, Syed Murtaza, Shabana Naz, Ziaul Islam, Abdulwahed Fahad Alrefaei, Rifat Ullah Khan, Samia H Abdelrahman, A Chandrasekaran

Animal industry seeks cost-effective solutions to enhance performance and health of domestic animals. This study investigated the effects of supplementing Bacillus spp. probiotics and xylanase on 2000 one-day-old Japanese quails, randomly assigned to four treatment groups (10 replicates). The control group received no supplementation, while the others were supplemented with a Bacillus-based probiotic at 7.5 × 107 cfu/kg of feed, xylanase enzyme (2,000 U/kg) alone or in combination. Quails receiving both probiotic and enzyme exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) higher weekly and overall weight gain, and lower feed conversion ratios compared to the control group. Dressing percentage was higher (p < 0.01), and mortality lower in birds supplemented with a combination of enzyme and probiotic. Antibody titres against infectious bronchitis and infectious bursal disease were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in quails receiving combined probiotic and enzyme supplementation, while titres against Newcastle disease virus were higher (p < 0.01) in groups supplemented with probiotic and enzyme individually or in combination. Additionally, digestibility was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in groups receiving combined enzyme and probiotic supplementation, with higher apparent metabolizable energy compared to the control. The populations of beneficial Lactobacillus increased, while harmful E. coli and Salmonella decreased significantly in quails supplemented with both probiotic and enzyme. In conclusion, supplementing xylanase enzyme and probiotic together in Japanese quails positively influenced growth, nutrient digestibility, immune response, and cecal microbiota.

畜牧业正在寻求具有成本效益的解决方案,以提高家畜的生产性能和健康水平。本研究调查了补充芽孢杆菌属益生菌和木聚糖酶对 2000 只一天龄日本鹌鹑的影响,这些鹌鹑被随机分配到四个处理组(10 个重复)。对照组不添加任何益生菌,其他处理组则单独或同时添加 7.5 × 107 cfu/kg 饲料浓度的芽孢杆菌益生菌和木聚糖酶(2,000 U/kg)。同时添加益生菌和木聚糖酶的鹌鹑体内乳酸杆菌显著增加,而有害大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌显著减少。总之,同时补充木聚糖酶和益生菌对日本鹌鹑的生长、营养消化率、免疫反应和盲肠微生物群有积极影响。
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引用次数: 0
Evaluation of chronic stress status and quality of life in cats suffering from chronic kidney disease and suspected feline infectious peritonitis based on hair cortisol concentration analysis and a questionnaire. 根据毛发皮质醇浓度分析和问卷调查评估慢性肾病和疑似猫传染性腹膜炎患者的慢性应激状态和生活质量。
IF 7.9 2区 农林科学 Q1 VETERINARY SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-07-19 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2379327
Chien-Hui Chen, Chao-Chin Chang, Wei-Che Chen, Ya-Jane Lee

Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and a questionnaire were used as indicators of chronic stress status and quality of life (QoL), respectively, in cats. To date, there has been limited research on the simultaneous application of both indicators in unwell cats. Our aim was to evaluate HCC and questionnaire data obtained from a healthy cat cohort (n = 61) and cat cohorts with either chronic kidney disease (CKD) (n = 78) or suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) (n = 24). Furthermore, we also investigated the correlation between HCC and clinical pathological data. For this study, hair from the abdomen of cats was collected and analyzed for HCC using a commercial ELISA kit. Owners also completed a questionnaire, from which average-item-weighted-impact-scores (AWISs) were calculated. Cats with late-stage-CKD (median, HCC = 330.15 pg/mg, AWIS = -0.43) presented with a significantly higher HCC (p < 0.01) and a significantly lower AWIS (p < 0.01) than cats with early-stage-CKD (HCC = 183.56 pg/mg, AWIS = 1.08). Similarly, there were significant differences in both HCC (p < 0.001) and AWIS (p < 0.001) between cats with suspected FIP (HCC = 896.27 pg/mg, AWIS = -1.97) and healthy cats (HCC = 181.24 pg/mg, AWIS = 1.24). The degree of consistency between the HCC results and the questionnaire results reminds us that the severity of a chronic disease or the presence of a life-threatening disease can significantly increase stress and thus can affect the QoL of cats.

毛发皮质醇浓度(HCC)和问卷调查分别被用作猫咪慢性压力状态和生活质量(QoL)的指标。迄今为止,将这两个指标同时应用于不健康猫咪的研究还很有限。我们的目的是评估从健康猫群组(61 只)和患有慢性肾病 (CKD) (78 只)或疑似猫传染性腹膜炎 (FIP) (24 只)的猫群组中获得的 HCC 和问卷调查数据。此外,我们还调查了 HCC 与临床病理数据之间的相关性。在这项研究中,我们收集了猫腹部的毛发,并使用商业 ELISA 试剂盒对毛发进行了 HCC 分析。猫主人还填写了一份调查问卷,并从中计算出平均项目加权影响分数(AWIS)。晚期 CKD 猫(中位数,HCC = 330.15 pg/mg,AWIS = -0.43)的 HCC 明显更高(p p p p
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引用次数: 0
Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiling of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolated from cats, Bangladesh. 从孟加拉国猫体内分离出的假中间葡萄球菌的抗菌药耐药性和毒力特征。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-03-15 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2326848
Eaftekhar Ahmed Rana, Tanvir Ahmad Nizami, Md Sayedul Islam, Subrata Sarker, Hafizar Rahman, Azizul Hoque, Mizanur Rahman

Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a significant bacterial pathogen that frequently colonizes different body sites and mucous membranes of pets. The objectives of the cross-sectional study were to estimate the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance pattern, and detection of diverse resistance as well as virulence genes of S. pseudintermedius in cats. A standard bacteriological method, species-specific gene and different antimicrobial resistance as well as virulence genes were confirmed by PCR assay. A total of 233 swab samples were collected from different body sites of 102 cats, among them 146 swabs from 73 healthy cats, and 87 from 29 diseased cats. Overall, prevalence of S. pseudintermedius in cats was 12.01%, while dermatitis and otitis affected cats were 26.08% and 33.33%, respectively. The highest antimicrobial resistance was observed against penicillin (96.42%) followed by streptomycin (85.71%) and erythromycin (78.57%). Moreover, 89.28% of S. pseudintermedius isolates exhibit multi-drug resistance (MDR) (≥ 3 classes' antimicrobial resistant). In addition, 17.86% isolates harbored the mecA gene; thus, were classified as methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP). Furthermore, the erythromycin resistance genes ermA and ermB were harbored by 25% and 10.71% of isolates, while 42.86% and 17.86% of isolates carried tetK and tetL (tetracycline resistance) genes, respectively. In virulence profiling, 32.14% (sea) and 10.71% (seb) of isolates were found positive for enterotoxin genes, whereas, the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (tst-1) gene and the Panton-Valentine leukocidin gene (pvl) were detected in 25% and 14.29% of isolates, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cats in Bangladesh for MDR S. pseudintermedius, MRSP, and their virulence profiling.

假中间葡萄球菌是一种重要的细菌病原体,经常定植于宠物的不同身体部位和粘膜。这项横断面研究的目的是估算猫体内假中间葡萄球菌的流行率、抗菌药耐药性模式,并检测其不同的耐药性和毒力基因。研究采用标准细菌学方法,通过聚合酶链式反应(PCR)检测法确认了物种特异性基因和不同的抗菌药耐药性及毒力基因。共从 102 只猫的不同身体部位采集了 233 份拭子样本,其中 146 份来自 73 只健康猫,87 份来自 29 只患病猫。总体而言,伪中间体在猫体内的流行率为 12.01%,而皮炎和耳炎患病猫的流行率分别为 26.08% 和 33.33%。对青霉素的耐药性最高(96.42%),其次是链霉素(85.71%)和红霉素(78.57%)。此外,89.28%的伪中间体分离株表现出多重耐药性(MDR)(耐药性≥3类抗菌药物)。此外,17.86%的分离物携带 mecA 基因,因此被归类为耐甲氧西林伪中间体(MRSP)。此外,分别有 25% 和 10.71% 的分离物携带红霉素抗性基因 ermA 和 ermB,42.86% 和 17.86% 的分离物携带四环素抗性基因 tetK 和 tetL。在毒力分析中,32.14%(sea)和 10.71%(seb)的分离物发现肠毒素基因呈阳性,而在 25% 和 14.29% 的分离物中分别检测到中毒性休克综合征毒素-1(tst-1)基因和潘顿-瓦伦丁白细胞介素基因(pvl)。据我们所知,这是孟加拉国首次报告猫体内的 MDR S. pseudintermedius、MRSP 及其毒力图谱。
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引用次数: 0
Development and evaluation of a chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture based live attenuated Indian strain duck plague vaccine. 基于鸡胚成纤维细胞培养的印度鸭瘟减毒活疫苗的开发与评估。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-05-10 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2350668
Satyabrata Dandapat, Suresh Bindu, Gaurav Kumar Sharma, Sivasankar Panickan, Sukdeb Nandi, G Saikumar, Kuldeep Dhama

Duck plague (DP) is an acute, contagious and fatal disease, caused by duck enteritis virus (DEV), with worldwide distribution causing several outbreaks and posing severe economic losses. The present study was carried out with a goal of development of a live attenuated cell culture based DP vaccine using an Indian strain of DEV and evaluation of its safety, efficacy along with complete genome analysis. The live attenuated DP vaccine (DPvac/IVRI-19) was developed by serial propagation of a virulent isolate of DEV (DEV/India/IVRI-2016) in the chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) primary cell culture. Adaptation of DEV in CEF cell culture was indicated by more rapid appearance of cytopathic effects (CPE) and gradual increase of virus titre, which reached up to 107.5 TCID50/mL after 41 passages. The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine were determined by immunization trials in ducklings. The DPvac/IVRI-19 was found to be avirulent and completely safe in the ducklings. Further, the vaccine induced both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and afforded 100% protection against the virulent DEV challenge. A comparison of the whole genome of DPvac/IVRI-19 (MZ911871) and DEV/India/IVRI-2016 (MZ824102) revealed significant number of mutations, which might be associated with viral attenuation. Phylogenetic tree of DEV/India/IVRI-2016 revealed its evolutionary relationship with other DEV isolates, but it formed a separate cluster with certain unique mutations. Thus, with the proven safety and 100% efficacy, the DPvac/IVRI-19 is suitable for large scale production with precisely pure form of vaccine and has potential utility at national and global levels.

鸭瘟(DP)是由鸭肠炎病毒(DEV)引起的一种急性、传染性和致命性疾病,分布于世界各地,曾多次爆发并造成严重的经济损失。本研究的目的是利用一种印度鸭肠炎病毒株开发一种基于细胞培养的鸭瘟减毒活疫苗,并对其安全性、有效性和全基因组分析进行评估。减毒DP活疫苗(DPvac/IVRI-19)是通过在鸡胚成纤维细胞(CEF)原代细胞培养物中连续培养DEV的毒力分离株(DEV/India/IVRI-2016)而制成的。DEV在CEF细胞培养中的适应性表现为细胞病理效应(CPE)出现更快,病毒滴度逐渐升高,41次传代后达到107.5 TCID50/mL。疫苗的安全性、免疫原性和有效性是通过雏鸭免疫试验确定的。结果发现,DPvac/IVRI-19 对小鸭无毒且完全安全。此外,该疫苗还能诱导体液和细胞介导的免疫反应,并对毒性 DEV 挑战提供 100% 的保护。对DPvac/IVRI-19(MZ911871)和DEV/India/IVRI-2016(MZ824102)的全基因组进行比较后发现了大量突变,这可能与病毒衰减有关。DEV/India/IVRI-2016 的系统发生树显示了它与其他 DEV 分离物的进化关系,但它因某些独特的突变而形成了一个独立的集群。因此,DPvac/IVRI-19 的安全性和 100% 效力已得到证实,适合大规模生产纯度精确的疫苗,在国家和全球层面都具有潜在的实用性。
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引用次数: 0
Tertiary lymphoid organs in wild boar exposed to a low-virulent isolate of African swine fever virus. 暴露于低毒性非洲猪瘟病毒分离株的野猪的三级淋巴器官。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-03-27 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2331525
Néstor Porras, José M Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Aleksandra Kosowska, José Á Barasona

Despite the great interest in the development of a vaccine against African swine fever (ASF) in wild boar, the immunological mechanisms that induce animal protection are still unknown. For this purpose, tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) of wild boar were characterised and compared with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs) by histopathology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry (CD3, CD79, PAX5, LYVE1, fibronectin). In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (p72) were used to evaluate the presence of ASF virus (ASFV) in blood and tissues samples, respectively. TLOs were observed in animals infected with a low-virulent ASFV isolate (LVI), animals co-infected with low and high-virulent ASFV isolates (LVI-HVI) and animals infected only with the high virulence isolate (HVI). TLOs in LVI and LVI-HVI groups were located adjacent to the mucosa and presented a similar structure to MALT. Immunoexpresion of p72 observed in the inflammatory cells adjacent to TLOs/MALTs confirmed its development and reactivity generated by ASF attenuated isolates. Immunohistochemical evaluation, based on cellular composition (T and B lymphocytes), and histomorphometrical study revealed a more pronounced maturation of TLOs/MALTs in the LVI-HVI group. It is currently unclear whether these formations play a protective role by contributing to local immunity in chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the structural similarities between TLOs and MALTs and the location of TLOs close to the mucosa suggest that they may perform a similar function, facilitating a local protective response. Nevertheless, further investigations are warranted to assess the cellular and humoral dynamics of these lymphoid organs induced by attenuated isolates.

尽管人们对开发野猪非洲猪瘟(ASF)疫苗非常感兴趣,但诱导动物保护的免疫机制仍然未知。为此,通过组织病理学、组织形态计量学和免疫组织化学(CD3、CD79、PAX5、LYVE1、纤连蛋白)对野猪的三级淋巴器官(TLO)进行了表征,并与粘膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)进行了比较。此外,实时聚合酶链反应(qPCR)和免疫组织化学(p72)分别用于评估血液和组织样本中是否存在 ASF 病毒(ASFV)。在感染低毒ASFV分离株(LVI)的动物、同时感染低毒和高毒ASFV分离株(LVI-HVI)的动物以及仅感染高毒力分离株(HVI)的动物中观察到TLO。LVI组和LVI-HVI组的TLO毗邻粘膜,结构与MALT相似。在邻近TLO/MALT的炎症细胞中观察到的p72免疫反应证实了ASF减毒分离物产生的p72的发展和反应性。基于细胞组成(T 淋巴细胞和 B 淋巴细胞)的免疫组化评估和组织形态学研究显示,LVI-HVI 组的 TLOs/MALTs 成熟更为明显。目前还不清楚这些组织是否在慢性炎症性疾病中通过促进局部免疫发挥保护作用。不过,TLO 和 MALTs 结构上的相似性以及 TLO 靠近粘膜的位置表明,它们可能发挥类似的功能,促进局部保护性反应。尽管如此,仍有必要进行进一步研究,以评估这些淋巴器官在减毒分离物诱导下的细胞和体液动态。
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引用次数: 0
Parasitic findings on threatened pudu deer from Central Chile accounts first genetic characterization of lice parasitizing P. puda in Chile and the first molecular report of Taenia hydatigena metacestodes in this species. 对智利中部濒临灭绝的普渡鹿的寄生虫研究结果首次说明了寄生于智利普渡鹿的虱子的遗传特征,并首次从分子角度报告了该物种中的水蚤元绦虫。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-01-19 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2302027
Tamara Muñoz-Caro, María Fernanda González, Rodrigo Villalobos, Alejandro Hidalgo

Southern pudu (Pudu puda) is a threatened endemic deer of the temperate forests of Chile. In recent years pudu populations rates have decreased mainly due to anthropogenic causes including forest loss and landscape fragmentation. In this context, the parasitic fauna of Chilean pudu has been scarcely investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the parasitic status of rescued pudu n = 13 from its natural habitat in Central Chile (Maule region) during March 2022 and June 2023 by applying morphological, histopathological, and molecular analyses. As result, we report the presence of transmission of parasites from dogs to pudus as showed by the presence of metacestodes of the parasite Taenia hydatigena on omentum, liver, and pleura of pudus during postmortem examinations, being the first molecular report on the presence of this parasite on Chilean pudu. Meanwhile, ectoparasite examinations determined the presence of chewing and sucking lice on pudu exemplars here analysed. Molecular and phylogenetic analysis of lice revealed new insights on Bovicola and Anoplura lice parasitizing P. puda in Chile, equally being the first genetic characterization of lice parasitizing pudu exemplars in Chile. In addition, parasite loads of lice and metacestodes were analysed. However, no statistically significance was observed when comparing environmental and individual traits influence on parasite load variation. Overall, the study area is the northern limit of habitat distribution of this specie in Chile and we here provide novel information on pudu deer parasites, thus making a useful and valuable contribution to the parasitological knowledge on this threatened species.

南鹿(Pudu puda)是智利温带森林中一种濒危的特有鹿类。近年来,主要由于森林减少和景观破碎化等人为原因,普度的种群数量有所减少。在这种情况下,智利麋鹿的寄生动物区系很少得到研究。本研究的目的是通过形态学、组织病理学和分子分析,确定 2022 年 3 月和 2023 年 6 月期间从智利中部(莫莱地区)的自然栖息地救回的 13 头普渡犬的寄生状况。结果,我们报告了寄生虫从狗传染给乌贼的情况,因为在乌贼的网膜、肝脏和胸膜上发现了寄生虫 Taenia hydatigena 的 metacestodes,这是关于智利乌贼身上存在这种寄生虫的首份分子报告。与此同时,体外寄生虫检查确定了所分析的乌贼样本中存在咀嚼虱和吸吮虱。虱子的分子和系统发育分析揭示了寄生于智利普达鱼的Bovicola和Anoplura虱子的新情况,这也是首次对寄生于智利普达鱼样本的虱子进行基因鉴定。此外,还分析了虱子和介壳虫的寄生量。然而,在比较环境和个体特征对寄生虫数量变化的影响时,没有发现显著的统计学意义。总之,研究区域是该物种在智利栖息地分布的北部极限,我们在此提供了有关普渡鹿寄生虫的新信息,从而为这一濒危物种的寄生虫学知识做出了有益和有价值的贡献。
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引用次数: 0
Sleep disturbance in clinical and preclinical scrapie-infected sheep measured by polysomnography. 通过多导睡眠图测量临床和临床前瘙痒症感染绵羊的睡眠障碍。
IF 6.4 2区 农林科学 Q1 Veterinary Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-05-02 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2349674
Diego Sola Fraca, Ernesto Sánchez Garrigós, Jorge de Francisco Moure, Belén Marín Gonzalez, Juan José Badiola Díez, Cristina Acín Tresaco

Neurodegenerative diseases are characterised by neuronal loss and abnormal deposition of pathological proteins in the nervous system. Among the most common neurodegenerative diseases are Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances are one of the most common symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, one of the main objectives in the study of TSEs is to try to establish an early diagnosis, as clinical signs do not appear until the damage to the central nervous system is very advanced, which prevents any therapeutic approach. In this paper, we provide the first description of sleep disturbance caused by classical scrapie in clinical and preclinical sheep using polysomnography compared to healthy controls. Fifteen sheep classified into three groups, clinical, preclinical and negative control, were analysed. The results show a decrease in total sleep time as the disease progresses, with significant changes between control, clinical and pre-clinical animals. The results also show an increase in sleep fragmentation in clinical animals compared to preclinical and control animals. In addition, sheep with clinical scrapie show a total loss of Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM) and alterations in Non Rapid Eyes Movement sleep (NREM) compared to control sheep, demonstrating more shallow sleep. Although further research is needed, these results suggest that prion diseases also produce sleep disturbances in animals and that polysomnography could be a diagnostic tool of interest in clinical and preclinical cases of prion diseases.

神经退行性疾病的特征是神经元丧失和病理蛋白在神经系统中异常沉积。最常见的神经退行性疾病包括阿尔茨海默病(AD)、帕金森病(PD)、亨廷顿病和传染性海绵状脑病(TSE)。睡眠和昼夜节律紊乱是神经退行性疾病患者最常见的症状之一。目前,研究 TSE 的主要目标之一是尝试建立早期诊断,因为临床症状要到中枢神经系统受到严重损害时才会出现,这就阻碍了任何治疗方法。在本文中,我们使用多导睡眠图与健康对照组进行比较,首次描述了经典绵羊瘙痒症在临床和临床前绵羊中引起的睡眠障碍。我们对分为临床、临床前和阴性对照三组的 15 只绵羊进行了分析。结果显示,随着病情的发展,总睡眠时间会减少,对照组、临床组和临床前组动物之间的睡眠时间会发生显著变化。结果还显示,与临床前动物和对照组动物相比,临床动物的睡眠碎片增加。此外,与对照组绵羊相比,患有临床潦草病的绵羊完全丧失了快速眼动睡眠(REM),非快速眼动睡眠(NREM)也发生了变化,显示睡眠更浅。尽管还需要进一步研究,但这些结果表明,朊病毒疾病也会造成动物睡眠障碍,多导睡眠图可以成为朊病毒疾病临床和临床前病例的诊断工具。
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引用次数: 0
Efficacy of quercetin-like compounds from the mistletoe plant of Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq, as oral random blood sugar lowering treatment in diabetic rats. 槲寄生植物 Dendrophthoe pentandra L. Miq 中的槲皮素类化合物对糖尿病大鼠口服随机降血糖治疗的疗效。
IF 7.9 2区 农林科学 Q1 VETERINARY SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-12-01 Epub Date: 2024-06-29 DOI: 10.1080/01652176.2024.2372090
Mochamad Lazuardi, Qonita Kurnia Anjani, Aniek Setya Budiatin, Tjuk Imam Restiadi

Background: Mistletoe is an herb that grows on duku plants (Lancium demosticum) and is known as benalu duku (BD) in Indonesia. It is predicted to have benefits such as anticancer or antiviral properties, and it is also thought to have anti-diabetic pharmacological activity. Quercetin-like compounds (QLCs) are secondary metabolites with antidiabetic activity that are expected to lower blood sugar levels in animals after oral administration.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the ability of QLCs to reduce random blood sugar levels using experimental animals as clinical models.

Material and methods: The research method used was exploratory, which used a before-after test model, and observations were made on the random blood sugar levels after treatment. Secondary metabolites were extracted from BD leaves, which were then screened. Diabetes was induced in 30 rats (Rattus norvegicus) by the administration of streptozotocin at 0.045 mg/g body weight daily for 2 days. The antidiabetic effects of the secondary metabolite at doses of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (twice a day) when administered orally for up to 5 days were tested in diabetic rats. The random sugar levels (mg/dL) were measured using a One Touch Ultra Plus medical device for observation of randomized blood sugar levels. Results and novelty: The results revealed that the secondary metabolite, as an analyte from the BD leaf extract, can significantly reduce random blood sugar levels.

Conclusion: The secondary metabolite extracted from BD, could be used to treat diabetes in rats.

背景:槲寄生是一种生长在 Duku 植物(Lancium demosticum)上的草本植物,在印度尼西亚被称为 benalu duku(BD)。据预测,它具有抗癌或抗病毒等功效,还被认为具有抗糖尿病的药理活性。槲皮素类化合物(QLCs)是具有抗糖尿病活性的次级代谢物,口服后有望降低动物的血糖水平:本研究旨在以实验动物为临床模型,分析 QLCs 降低随机血糖水平的能力:研究方法为探索性研究,采用前后试验模型,观察治疗后的随机血糖水平。从北斗七星叶中提取次生代谢物,然后进行筛选。给 30 只大鼠(Rattus norvegicus)注射链脲佐菌素,每天 0.045 毫克/克体重,连续 2 天,诱发糖尿病。测试了次级代谢物在糖尿病大鼠中的抗糖尿病作用,口服剂量为 0.5 毫克/千克体重(每天两次),持续时间长达 5 天。使用用于观察随机血糖水平的 One Touch Ultra Plus 医疗设备测量随机血糖水平(毫克/分升)。结果和新颖性:研究结果表明,BD 叶提取物中的次生代谢物作为一种分析物,可显著降低随机血糖水平:结论:从 BD 中提取的次生代谢物可用于治疗大鼠糖尿病。
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引用次数: 0
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