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Transgenerational phenotypic responses to herbicide stress are more rapid than to shade and simulated herbivory in Arabidopsis. 拟南芥对除草剂胁迫的代际表型反应比对遮荫和模拟食草动物的反应更快。
IF 6.2 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-18 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.16923
Gourav Sharma, David Haak, James H Westwood, Shawn Askew, Jacob N Barney

Weeds in agricultural settings continually adapt to stresses from ecological and anthropogenic sources, in some cases leading to resistant populations. However, consequences of repeated sub-lethal exposure of these stressors on fitness and stress "memory" over generations remain poorly understood. We measured plant performance over a transgenerational experiment with Arabidopsis thaliana where plants were exposed to sub-lethal stress induced by the herbicides glyphosate or trifloxysulfuron, stresses from clipping or shading in either one (G1) or four successive generations (G1-G4), and control plants that never received stress. We found that fourth-generation (G4) plants that had been subjected to three generations of glyphosate or trifloxysulfuron stress produced higher post-stress biomass, seed weight, and rosette area as compared to that produced by plants that experienced stress only in the first generation (G1). By the same measure, clipping and shade were more influential on floral development time (shade) and seed weight (clipping) but did not show responsive phenotypes for vegetative metrics after multiple generations. Overall, we found that plants exhibited more rapid transgenerational vegetative "stress memory" to herbicides while reproductive plasticity was stressor dependent and similar between clipping/shade and anthropogenic stressors. Our study suggests that maternal plant stress memory aids next-generation plants to respond and survive better under the same stressors.

农业环境中的杂草不断适应来自生态和人为来源的压力,在某些情况下会导致抗性种群的产生。然而,人们对这些应激源反复亚致死暴露对几代人的适应性和应激 "记忆 "的影响仍然知之甚少。我们用拟南芥进行了一项跨代实验,让植物暴露于由除草剂草甘膦或三氟磺隆诱导的亚致死胁迫、连续一代(G1)或四代(G1-G4)的剪枝或遮光胁迫,以及从未接受过胁迫的对照植物中,测量植物的表现。我们发现,受到三代草甘膦或三氟磺隆胁迫的第四代植株(G4)与只在第一代(G1)受到胁迫的植株相比,在胁迫后产生的生物量、种子重量和莲座丛面积更高。用同样的方法衡量,剪切和遮荫对花的发育时间(遮荫)和种子重量(剪切)的影响更大,但在多代之后并没有表现出对无性系指标的响应表型。总之,我们发现植物对除草剂表现出更快的跨代无性系 "胁迫记忆",而生殖可塑性则取决于胁迫因子,并且在剪切/遮荫和人为胁迫因子之间具有相似性。我们的研究表明,母本植物的胁迫记忆有助于下一代植物在相同的胁迫下做出更好的反应并存活下来。
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引用次数: 0
Context-dependent antisense transcription from a neighboring gene interferes with the expression of mNeonGreen as a functional in vivo fluorescent reporter in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. 来自邻近基因的上下文依赖性反义转录干扰了 mNeonGreen 作为一种功能性体内荧光报告物在莱茵衣藻叶绿体中的表达。
IF 6.2 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.16915
Axel Navarrete, Bernardo Pollak

Advancing chloroplast genetic engineering in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii remains challenging, decades after its first successful transformation. This study introduces the development of a chloroplast-optimized mNeonGreen fluorescent reporter, enabling in vivo observation through a sixfold increase in fluorescence via context-aware construct engineering. Our research highlights the influence of transcriptional readthrough and antisense mRNA pairing on post-transcriptional regulation, pointing to novel strategies for optimizing heterologous gene expression. We further demonstrate the applicability of these insights using an accessible experimentation system using glass-bead transformation and reestablishment of photosynthesis using psbH mutants, focusing on the mitigation of transcriptional readthrough effects. By characterizing heterologous expression using regulatory elements such as PrrnS, 5'atpA, and 3' rbcL in a sense-transcriptional context, we further documented up to twofold improvement in fluorescence levels. Our findings contribute new tools for molecular biology research in the chloroplast and evidence fundamental gene regulation processes that could enable the development of more effective chloroplast engineering strategies. This work not only paves the way for more efficient genetic engineering of chloroplasts but also deepens our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms at play.

衣藻的叶绿体基因工程在首次成功转化数十年后仍面临挑战。本研究介绍了叶绿体优化 mNeonGreen 荧光报告物的开发,通过情境感知构建工程将荧光提高六倍,从而实现体内观察。我们的研究强调了转录通读和反义 mRNA 配对对转录后调控的影响,指出了优化异源基因表达的新策略。我们利用玻璃珠转化和使用psbH突变体重建光合作用的简便实验系统,进一步证明了这些见解的适用性,重点是减轻转录通读效应。通过使用 PrrnS、5'atpA 和 3' rbcL 等调控元件进行感转录背景下的异源表达,我们进一步证实荧光水平提高了两倍。我们的研究结果为叶绿体分子生物学研究提供了新的工具,并证明了基本的基因调控过程,从而能够开发出更有效的叶绿体工程策略。这项工作不仅为更有效的叶绿体基因工程铺平了道路,而且加深了我们对调控机制的理解。
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引用次数: 0
The P2 protein of wheat yellow mosaic virus acts as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana to facilitate virus infection. 小麦黄曲霉病毒的 P2 蛋白在烟草中作为 RNA 沉默的病毒抑制因子,促进病毒感染。
IF 6 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1111/pce.15041
Dao Chen, Hui-Ying Zhang, Shu-Ming Hu, Zheng He, Yong Qi Wu, Zong-Ying Zhang, Ying Wang, Cheng-Gui Han

Wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) causes severe viral wheat disease in Asia. The WYMV P1 protein encoded by RNA2 has viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) activity to facilitate virus infection, however, VSR activity has not been identified for P2 protein encoded by RNA2. In this study, P2 protein exhibited strong VSR activity in Nicotiana benthamiana at the four-leaf stage, and point mutants P70A and G230A lost VSR activity. Protein P2 interacted with calmodulin (CaM) protein, a gene-silencing associated protein, while point mutants P70A and G230A did not interact with it. Competitive bimolecular fluorescence complementation and competitive co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that P2 interfered with the interaction between CaM and calmodulin-binding transcription activator 3 (CAMTA3), but the point mutants P70A and G230A could not. Mechanical inoculation of wheat with in vitro transcripts of WYMV infectious cDNA clone further confirmed that VSR-deficient mutants P70A and G230A decreased WYMV infection in wheat plants compared with the wild type. In addition, RNA silencing, temperature, ubiquitination and autophagy had significant effects on accumulation of P2 protein in N. benthamiana leaves. In conclusion, WYMV P2 plays a VSR role in N. benthamiana and promotes virus infection by interfering with calmodulin-related antiviral RNAi defense.

小麦黄曲霉病毒(WYMV)在亚洲导致严重的小麦病毒病。RNA2 编码的 WYMV P1 蛋白具有病毒抑制 RNA 沉默(VSR)活性,可促进病毒感染,但 RNA2 编码的 P2 蛋白尚未发现 VSR 活性。本研究发现,P2 蛋白在四叶期的烟草中表现出很强的 VSR 活性,点突变体 P70A 和 G230A 失去了 VSR 活性。蛋白 P2 与基因沉默相关蛋白钙调蛋白(CaM)相互作用,而点突变体 P70A 和 G230A 没有与之相互作用。竞争性双分子荧光互补和竞争性共免疫沉淀实验表明,P2干扰了CaM与钙调蛋白结合转录激活因子3(CAMTA3)之间的相互作用,而点突变体P70A和G230A则不能。用体外转录的 WYMV 感染性 cDNA 克隆机械接种小麦进一步证实,与野生型相比,VSR 缺陷突变体 P70A 和 G230A 能降低小麦植株的 WYMV 感染率。此外,RNA 沉默、温度、泛素化和自噬对 P2 蛋白在 N. benthamiana 叶片中的积累也有显著影响。总之,WYMV P2 在 N. benthamiana 中发挥 VSR 作用,并通过干扰钙调蛋白相关的抗病毒 RNAi 防御来促进病毒感染。
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引用次数: 0
Biochemical versus stomatal acclimation of dynamic photosynthetic gas exchange to elevated CO2 in three horticultural species with contrasting stomatal morphology. 在三种气孔形态截然不同的园艺物种中,动态光合气体交换对高浓度 CO2 的生化适应性与气孔适应性。
IF 6 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1111/pce.15043
Ningyi Zhang, Sarah R Berman, Tom van den Berg, Yunke Chen, Leo F M Marcelis, Elias Kaiser

Understanding photosynthetic acclimation to elevated CO2 (eCO2) is important for predicting plant physiology and optimizing management decisions under global climate change, but is underexplored in important horticultural crops. We grew three crops differing in stomatal density-namely chrysanthemum, tomato, and cucumber-at near-ambient CO2 (450 μmol mol-1) and eCO2 (900 μmol mol-1) for 6 weeks. Steady-state and dynamic photosynthetic and stomatal conductance (gs) responses were quantified by gas exchange measurements. Opening and closure of individual stomata were imaged in situ, using a novel custom-made microscope. The three crop species acclimated to eCO2 with very different strategies: Cucumber (with the highest stomatal density) acclimated to eCO2 mostly via dynamic gs responses, whereas chrysanthemum (with the lowest stomatal density) acclimated to eCO2 mostly via photosynthetic biochemistry. Tomato exhibited acclimation in both photosynthesis and gs kinetics. eCO2 acclimation in individual stomatal pore movement increased rates of pore aperture changes in chrysanthemum, but such acclimation responses resulted in no changes in gs responses. Although eCO2 acclimation occurred in all three crops, photosynthesis under fluctuating irradiance was hardly affected. Our study stresses the importance of quantifying eCO2 acclimatory responses at different integration levels to understand photosynthetic performance under future eCO2 environments.

了解光合作用对高浓度 CO2(eCO2)的适应性对于预测植物生理机能和优化全球气候变化下的管理决策非常重要,但对重要园艺作物的光合作用适应性的探索还很不够。我们在接近环境的 CO2(450 μmol mol-1)和 eCO2(900 μmol mol-1)条件下种植了三种气孔密度不同的作物,即菊花、番茄和黄瓜,为期 6 周。通过气体交换测量对稳态和动态光合作用和气孔导度(gs)反应进行了量化。使用新型定制显微镜对单个气孔的打开和关闭进行了现场成像。三种作物适应二氧化碳的策略大相径庭:黄瓜(气孔密度最高)主要通过动态气孔反应来适应 eCO2,而菊花(气孔密度最低)主要通过光合生物化学来适应 eCO2。西红柿在光合作用和 gs 动力学方面都表现出了适应性。eCO2 对单个气孔运动的适应增加了菊花气孔孔径的变化率,但这种适应反应没有导致 gs 反应的变化。虽然三种作物都发生了二氧化碳适应反应,但波动辐照下的光合作用几乎没有受到影响。我们的研究强调了在不同整合水平上量化 eCO2 适应性反应对了解未来 eCO2 环境下光合作用性能的重要性。
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引用次数: 0
Rice CRYPTOCHROME-INTERACTING BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX 1-LIKE interacts with OsCRY2 and promotes flowering by upregulating Early heading date 1. 水稻 CRYPTOCHROME-INTERACTING BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX 1-LIKE 与 OsCRY2 相互作用,通过上调早穗期 1 促进开花。
IF 6 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1111/pce.15046
Sang-Ji Lee, Yunjeong Kim, Kiyoon Kang, Hyeryung Yoon, Jinku Kang, Sung-Hwan Cho, Nam-Chon Paek

Flowering time is a crucial adaptive response to seasonal variation in plants and is regulated by environmental cues such as photoperiod and temperature. In this study, we demonstrated the regulatory function of rice CRYPTOCHROME-INTERACTING BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX 1-LIKE (OsCIBL1) in flowering time. Overexpression of OsCIB1L promoted flowering, whereas the oscib1l knockout mutation did not alter flowering time independent of photoperiodic conditions. Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue light photoreceptors that enable plants to sense photoperiodic changes. OsCIBL1 interacted with OsCRY2, a member of the rice CRY family (OsCRY1a, OsCRY1b, and OsCRY2), and bound to the Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) promoter, activating the rice-specific Ehd1-Heading date 3a/RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 pathway for flowering induction. Dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that the OsCIBL1-OsCRY2 complex required blue light to induce Ehd1 transcription. Natural alleles resulting from nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in OsCIB1L and OsCRY2 may contribute to the adaptive expansion of rice cultivation areas. These results expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling rice flowering and highlight the importance of blue light-responsive genes in the geographic distribution of rice.

开花时间是植物对季节变化的一种重要适应性反应,受光周期和温度等环境线索的调控。本研究证明了水稻CRYPTOCHROME-INTERACTING BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX 1-LIKE(OsCIBL1)在花期中的调控功能。过表达 OsCIB1L 可促进开花,而 oscib1l 基因敲除突变不会改变开花时间,不受光周期条件的影响。隐色体(CRYs)是一种蓝光感光元件,能使植物感知光周期的变化。OsCIBL1与水稻CRY家族(OsCRY1a、OsCRY1b和OsCRY2)的成员OsCRY2相互作用,并结合到早期头状花序日期1(Ehd1)启动子上,激活了水稻特异性的Ehd1-头状花序日期3a/水稻花期基因T 1途径,从而诱导开花。双荧光素酶报告实验表明,OsCIBL1-OsCRY2 复合物需要蓝光才能诱导 Ehd1 转录。OsCIB1L 和 OsCRY2 中的非同义单核苷酸多态性所产生的天然等位基因可能有助于水稻种植区的适应性扩展。这些结果拓展了我们对控制水稻开花的分子机制的理解,并强调了蓝光响应基因在水稻地理分布中的重要性。
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引用次数: 0
Heat waves induce milkweed resistance to a specialist herbivore via increased toxicity and reduced nutrient content. 热浪通过增加毒性和减少营养成分诱导奶草抵抗一种专门食草动物。
IF 6 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1111/pce.15040
Xosé López-Goldar, Alyssa Mollema, Caz Sivak-Schwennesen, Nathan Havko, Gregg Howe, Anurag A Agrawal, William C Wetzel

Over the last decade, a large effort has been made to understand how extreme climate events disrupt species interactions. Yet, it is unclear how these events affect plants and herbivores directly, via metabolic changes, and indirectly, via their subsequent altered interaction. We exposed common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) and monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) to control (26:14°C, day:night) or heat wave (HW) conditions (36:24°C, day:night) for 4 days and then moved each organism to a new control or HW partner to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of heat exposure on each organism. We found that the HW directly benefited plants in terms of growth and defence expression (increased latex exudation and total cardenolides) and insect her'bivores through faster larval development. Conversely, indirect HW effects caused both plant latex and total cardenolides to decrease after subsequent herbivory. Nonetheless, increasing trends of more toxic cardenolides and lower leaf nutritional quality after herbivory by HW caterpillars likely led to reduced plant damage compared to controls. Our findings reveal that indirect impacts of HWs may play a greater role in shaping plant-herbivore interactions via changes in key physiological traits, providing valuable understanding of how ecological interactions may proceed in a changing world.

在过去十年中,人们一直在努力了解极端气候事件如何破坏物种间的相互作用。然而,目前还不清楚这些事件如何通过新陈代谢的变化直接影响植物和食草动物,以及通过它们随后改变的相互作用间接影响植物和食草动物。我们将普通乳草(Asclepias syriaca)和帝王斑毛虫(Danaus plexippus)暴露在对照条件(26:14°C,昼夜温差)或热浪(HW)条件(36:24°C,昼夜温差)下4天,然后将每种生物转移到新的对照或热浪伙伴处,以区分热暴露对每种生物的直接和间接影响。我们发现,高温直接有利于植物的生长和防御表达(增加乳胶渗出量和豆固醇总量),也有利于昆虫幼虫的快速发育。相反,HW 的间接影响导致植物的乳汁和豆蔻内酯总量在随后的食草动物捕食后减少。尽管如此,与对照组相比,HW 毛虫食草后毒性更强的豆蔻内酯的增加趋势和较低的叶片营养质量可能会导致植物损害的减少。我们的研究结果表明,通过关键生理特征的变化,HWs 的间接影响可能会在植物与食草动物的相互作用中发挥更大的作用,这为我们了解生态相互作用如何在不断变化的世界中进行提供了宝贵的资料。
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引用次数: 0
Effect of competition intensity and neighbor identity on architectural traits of Fagus sylvatica 竞争强度和邻居身份对欧洲鼠尾草建筑特征的影响
IF 2.1 3区 农林科学 Q2 FORESTRY Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1007/s00468-024-02544-3
Alice Penanhoat, Nathaly Guerrero Ramirez, M. Aubry-Kientz, Lucas Diekmann, S. Paligi, Michela Audisio, Klara Mrak, Dominik Seidel
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引用次数: 0
The auxin-responsive CsSPL9-CsGH3.4 module finely regulates auxin levels to suppress the development of adventitious roots in tea (Camellia sinensis). 辅助素响应性 CsSPL9-CsGH3.4 模块精细调节辅助素水平,抑制茶树不定根的发育。
IF 6.2 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.16916
Wenzhao Wang, Mengmin Jiao, Xue Huang, Wenjuan Liang, Zhonglian Ma, Zhanling Lu, Shenyang Tian, Xiuhua Gao, Li Fan, Xinyue He, Junhua Bao, Youben Yu, Dong Zhang, Lu Bao

The cutting technique is extensively used in tea breeding, with key emphasis on promoting the growth of adventitious roots (ARs). Despite its importance in tea cultivation, the mechanisms underlying AR development in tea remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the essential role of auxins in the initiation and progression of AR and established that the application of exogenous 1-naphthaleneacetic acid-enhanced AR formation in tissue-cultured seedlings and cuttings. Then, we found that the auxin-responsive transcription factor CsSPL9 acted as a negative regulator of AR development by reducing the levels of free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in tea plants. Furthermore, we identified CsGH3.4 as a downstream target of CsSPL9, which was activated by direct binding to its promoter. CsGH3.4 also inhibited AR development and maintained low levels of free IAA. Thus, these results revealed the inhibitory effect of the auxin-responsive CsSPL9-CsGH3.4 module on AR development by reducing free IAA levels in tea. These findings have significant theoretical and practical value for enhancing tea breeding practices.

扦插技术被广泛用于茶叶育种,重点是促进不定根(AR)的生长。尽管扦插技术在茶叶栽培中非常重要,但茶叶中AR的发育机制仍不清楚。在这项研究中,我们证明了辅助素在AR的萌发和发展过程中的重要作用,并确定了外源1-萘乙酸可促进组织培养幼苗和插条中AR的形成。然后,我们发现,通过降低茶树中游离吲哚-3-乙酸(IAA)的水平,辅助素响应性转录因子CsSPL9可作为AR发育的负调控因子。此外,我们还发现CsGH3.4是CsSPL9的下游靶标,CsSPL9通过与其启动子直接结合而被激活。CsGH3.4还能抑制AR的发育并维持低水平的游离IAA。因此,这些结果揭示了CsSPL9-CsGH3.4辅助素响应模块通过降低茶叶中游离IAA水平对AR发育的抑制作用。这些发现对加强茶叶育种实践具有重要的理论和实践价值。
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引用次数: 0
Formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase: supplying the cytosolic one-carbon network in roots with one-carbon units originating from glycolate. 甲酰四氢叶酸连接酶:为根的细胞膜一碳网络提供源自乙醇酸的一碳单位。
IF 6.2 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.16933
Sompop Saeheng, Clayton Bailes, Han Bao, Kelem Gashu, Matt Morency, Tana Arlynn, Andrei Smertenko, Berkley James Walker, Sanja Roje

The metabolism of tetrahydrofolate (H4PteGlun)-bound one-carbon (C1) units (C1 metabolism) is multifaceted and required for plant growth, but it is unclear what of many possible synthesis pathways provide C1 units in specific organelles and tissues. One possible source of C1 units is via formate-tetrahydrofolate ligase, which catalyzes the reversible ATP-driven production of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate (10-formyl-H4PteGlun) from formate and tetrahydrofolate (H4PteGlun). Here, we report biochemical and functional characterization of the enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtFTHFL). We show that the recombinant AtFTHFL has lower Km and kcat values with pentaglutamyl tetrahydrofolate (H4PteGlu5) as compared to monoglutamyl tetrahydrofolate (H4PteGlu1), resulting in virtually identical catalytic efficiencies for the two substrates. Stable transformation of Arabidopsis plants with the EGFP-tagged AtFTHFL, followed with fluorescence microscopy, demonstrated cytosolic signal. Two independent T-DNA insertion lines with impaired AtFTHFL function had shorter roots compared to the wild type plants, demonstrating the importance of this enzyme for root growth. Overexpressing AtFTHFL led to the accumulation of H4PteGlun + 5,10-methylene-H4PteGlun and serine, accompanied with the depletion of formate and glycolate, in roots of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants. This metabolic adjustment supports the hypothesis that AtFTHFL feeds the cytosolic C1 network in roots with C1 units originating from glycolate, and that these units are then used mainly for biosynthesis of serine, and not as much for the biosynthesis of 5-methyl-H4PteGlun, methionine, and S-adenosylmethionine. This finding has implications for any future attempts to engineer one-carbon unit-requiring products through manipulation of the one-carbon metabolic network in non-photosynthetic organs.

与四氢叶酸(H4PteGlun)结合的一碳(C1)单位(C1 代谢)的代谢是多方面的,也是植物生长所必需的,但目前还不清楚在许多可能的合成途径中,哪些途径能在特定细胞器和组织中提供 C1 单位。C1单位的一个可能来源是通过甲酸-四氢叶酸连接酶,该酶催化甲酸和四氢叶酸(H4PteGlun)可逆地生成 ATP 驱动的 10-甲酰四氢叶酸(10-formyl-H4PteGlun)。在此,我们报告了拟南芥(AtFTHFL)酶的生化和功能特征。我们发现重组 AtFTHFL 对五戊酰基四氢叶酸(H4PteGlu5)的 Km 值和 kcat 值低于对一戊酰基四氢叶酸(H4PteGlu1)的 Km 值和 kcat 值,因此对这两种底物的催化效率几乎相同。用 EGFP 标记的 AtFTHFL 稳定转化拟南芥植株,然后用荧光显微镜观察,结果显示了细胞膜信号。与野生型植株相比,两个独立的 T-DNA 插入品系 AtFTHFL 功能受损,根系较短,这证明了该酶对根系生长的重要性。过量表达 AtFTHFL 会导致 H4PteGlun + 5,10-亚甲基-H4PteGlun 和丝氨酸在转基因拟南芥植株的根部积累,同时甲酸盐和乙醇酸也会消耗殆尽。这种代谢调整支持了这样一种假设,即 AtFTHFL 为根中的细胞质 C1 网络提供了来自乙醇酸的 C1 单位,然后这些单位主要用于丝氨酸的生物合成,而不是用于 5-甲基-H4PteGlun、蛋氨酸和 S-腺苷蛋氨酸的生物合成。这一发现对今后试图通过操纵非光合器官中的一碳代谢网络来制造需要一碳单位的产品具有重要意义。
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引用次数: 0
Phylotranscriptomics provides a treasure trove of flood-tolerance mechanisms in the Cardamineae tribe. 系统转录组学提供了红豆杉科耐受洪水机制的宝库。
IF 6 1区 生物学 Q1 PLANT SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-07-16 DOI: 10.1111/pce.15033
Hans van Veen, Jana T Müller, Malte M Bartylla, Melis Akman, Rashmi Sasidharan, Angelika Mustroph

Flooding events are highly detrimental to most terrestrial plant species. However, there is an impressive diversity of plant species that thrive in flood-prone regions and represent a treasure trove of unexplored flood-resilience mechanisms. Here we surveyed a panel of four species from the Cardamineae tribe representing a broad tolerance range. This included the flood-tolerant Cardamine pratensis, Rorippa sylvestris and Rorippa palustris and the flood-sensitive species Cardamine hirsuta. All four species displayed a quiescent strategy, evidenced by the repression of shoot growth underwater. Comparative transcriptomics analyses between the four species and the sensitive model species Arabidopsis thaliana were facilitated via de novo transcriptome assembly and identification of 16 902 universal orthogroups at a high resolution. Our results suggest that tolerance likely evolved separately in the Cardamine and Rorippa species. While the Rorippa response was marked by a strong downregulation of cell-cycle genes, Cardamine minimized overall transcriptional regulation. However, a weak starvation response was a universal trait of tolerant species, potentially achieved in multiple ways. It could result from a strong decline in cell-cycle activity, but is also intertwined with autophagy, senescence, day-time photosynthesis and night-time fermentation capacity. Our data set provides a rich source to study adaptational mechanisms of flooding tolerance.

洪水事件对大多数陆生植物物种极为不利。然而,在易受洪水侵袭的地区生长着种类繁多的植物物种,它们是一座尚未开发的抗洪机制宝库。在这里,我们调查了卡达明科(Cardamineae)的四个物种,它们代表了广泛的耐受范围。其中包括耐洪水的 Cardamine pratensis、Rorippa sylvestris 和 Rorippa palustris 以及对洪水敏感的物种 Cardamine hirsuta。这四个物种都采取了静止策略,表现为抑制水下嫩枝的生长。这四个物种与敏感模式物种拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)之间的比较转录组学分析是通过全新的转录组组装和高分辨率的 16 902 个通用正交组的鉴定实现的。我们的研究结果表明,耐受性可能是在 Cardamine 和 Rorippa 两个物种中分别进化而来的。Rorippa 的反应以细胞周期基因的强烈下调为特征,而 Cardamine 则最大程度地减少了整体转录调控。然而,弱饥饿反应是耐受性物种的普遍特征,可能通过多种方式实现。这可能是细胞周期活性强烈下降的结果,但也与自噬、衰老、白天光合作用和夜间发酵能力有关。我们的数据集为研究耐水淹的适应机制提供了丰富的资料。
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