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The role of news and rumour during the Peasants’ Revolt, 1381 1381 年农民起义期间新闻和谣言的作用
IF 0.6 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-07-15 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae010
Paul Schoon
This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to examine the role of news and rumour during the Peasants’ Revolt, an aspect of the rising that has not been the subject of a detailed study. It considers the circulation of news in written and oral form and its importance in driving the rebellion. Sources suggest that the news of the revolt traversed the country quickly, moving at up to sixty-five miles a day, and its transmission is shown through an isopleth map to radiate outwards across the country from its point of origin in south-east England. Rumour is considered by means of a thought experiment using three examples drawn from rebel activities in London in June 1381. It thrived in the absence of news, particularly in a highly stressed environment. It is possible that rumour was used as a tactic by rebel commanders, who were able to generate and manipulate rumours to their own advantage.
这篇文章采用跨学科方法研究了农民起义期间新闻和谣言的作用,这也是尚未详细研究过的起义的一个方面。文章探讨了书面和口头形式的新闻传播及其在推动起义中的重要性。资料显示,起义的消息迅速传遍全国,每天的传播速度高达 65 英里,通过等值线图可以看出,起义的消息从英格兰东南部的起点向全国辐射。我们通过一个思想实验,利用 1381 年 6 月伦敦叛乱活动中的三个例子对谣言进行了研究。在没有消息的情况下,尤其是在高度紧张的环境中,谣言就会蓬勃发展。谣言有可能被叛军指挥官用作一种策略,他们能够制造和操纵谣言为自己谋利。
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引用次数: 0
‘The Hideous Old Lady of Fashion’: dressing the ageing body in Victorian Britain 时髦的丑老太太":维多利亚时代英国老龄人的着装
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-07-13 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae015
Ruby Ellis
This article explores how the biological realities and cultural constructions of ageing combined to influence a daily decision taken by Victorian women: what to wear. The cartoons found in Punch, and the guidance given by fashion papers and journalistic and literary sources highlight the individualized experience of dressing the ageing body, and the knowledge and skill needed to chart a course of compromise between ageing and the expectations that came with longer-held identities such as class, gender and sexuality. The difficulties in navigating this transition demonstrate how ageing was an art, and doing it well was a merit.
本文探讨了老龄化的生理现实和文化建构如何共同影响维多利亚时代女性的日常决定:穿什么衣服。庞克》中的漫画、时尚报刊以及新闻和文学资料所提供的指导,突出了老龄化身体着装的个性化体验,以及在老龄化与阶级、性别和性等长期持有的身份所带来的期望之间做出妥协所需的知识和技能。在这一转变过程中遇到的困难表明,衰老是一门艺术,而做好衰老则是一项功绩。
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引用次数: 0
Drugs and the Politics of Consumption in Japan 日本的毒品与消费政治
IF 0.5 Q3 AREA STUDIES Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1080/10371397.2024.2374474
Paul Christensen
Published in Japanese Studies (Ahead of Print, 2024)
发表于《日本研究》(2024 年提前出版)
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引用次数: 0
A secularizing society? Case studies of English northern industrial towns in the 1950s 世俗化社会?20 世纪 50 年代英国北部工业城镇案例研究
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae014
Clive Field
The religious historiography of Britain during the 1950s remains underdeveloped. Such scholarship as there is has drawn disproportionately upon national church statistics and opinion polls. In this article, the findings of three contemporaneous studies of religion in northern industrial towns are presented: Rawmarsh and Scunthorpe (1954–6), Billingham (1957–9), and Bolton (1960). Sundry indicators are illuminated, including churchgoing and rites of passage. No support is found for the claim that the 1950s were a decade of ‘religious revival’. Mainstream Protestantism was at an increasingly low ebb, and Catholicism was soon to feel the chill winds of secularization also.
20 世纪 50 年代英国的宗教史学仍然发展不足。现有的此类学术研究不成比例地借鉴了全国教会统计数据和民意调查。本文介绍了三项同时代对北方工业城镇宗教的研究结果:这三份研究分别是:Rawmarsh 和 Scunthorpe(1954-6 年)、Billingham(1957-9 年)和 Bolton(1960 年)。研究阐明了各种指标,包括去教堂和成年仪式。关于 20 世纪 50 年代是 "宗教复兴 "的十年的说法没有依据。主流新教日益低迷,天主教也很快感受到了世俗化的寒风。
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引用次数: 0
Overlapping authorities, vikings in Frisia and the church of Utrecht 权力重叠、弗里斯兰的维京人和乌特勒支教会
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae012
Fraser McNair
In 858 King Lothar II granted Bishop Hunger of Utrecht the abbey of Sint Odiliënberg to serve as a refuge against viking attacks. This article examines the political circumstance surrounding this event, arguing that the Utrecht clergy’s relocation was not a straightforward response to viking violence but was instead the result of pressures upon them caused by Frisia’s place at the centre of difference circles of overlapping authority. Through taking Frisia’s role in multiple polities and sub-polities seriously, I offer a new interpretation of the events of 858 and point to some further implications for earlier medieval politics.
858 年,国王洛塔尔二世将 Sint Odiliënberg 修道院赐予乌特勒支主教亨格,作为抵御维京海盗袭击的避难所。本文研究了与这一事件相关的政治环境,认为乌特勒支神职人员的迁移并不是对维京人暴力的直接回应,而是弗里斯兰处于权力重叠的不同圈子的中心所造成的压力的结果。通过认真对待弗里斯兰在多重政体和次政体中的角色,我对 858 年的事件做出了新的解释,并指出了对早期中世纪政治的进一步影响。
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引用次数: 0
The diplomatic authority of William Davison 威廉-戴维森的外交权威
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae011
Rosalyn Cousins
Secretary William Davison (d. 1608) is best known for his involvement in the execution of Mary, queen of Scots, in 1587. This article explores Davison’s earlier diplomatic career, specifically his mission to the Low Countries in autumn 1585. It argues, first, that Davison was an influential political actor prior to his elevation to the privy council, as he fulfilled significant diplomatic responsibilities and was highly regarded by his conciliar patrons; and second, that study of Davison’s diplomatic career casts new light on familiar debates over mid-Elizabethan diplomacy, men of business and patron-client relationships.
大臣威廉-戴维森(卒于 1608 年)因参与 1587 年处决苏格兰女王玛丽而闻名于世。本文探讨了戴维森早期的外交生涯,特别是他在 1585 年秋出使低地国家的经历。文章认为,首先,戴维森在被提升为枢密院成员之前是一位有影响力的政治人物,因为他履行了重要的外交职责,并受到其教会赞助人的高度评价;其次,对戴维森外交生涯的研究为人们所熟悉的有关伊丽莎白时代中期外交、商人和赞助人与客户关系的争论投射了新的视角。
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引用次数: 0
Malignant passions and carnal desires: rape in long eighteenth-century Scotland 恶性激情与肉欲:十八世纪漫长苏格兰的强奸案
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae013
Katie Barclay
Histories of lust have often been separated from that of rape, due to a concern with naturalizing male violence against women. However, ideas about lust have been significant at various historical moments in framing understandings of sexual violence and masculinity. This article explores how ideas of disorderly emotion, including lust, shaped the prosecution of rape in eighteenth-century Scotland. It highlights that placing legal accounts of rape within a framework of the ‘emotional ethics’ that guided early modern society helps to explain the low prosecution rates for rape in contexts where sexual violence was nonetheless considered sinful.
由于担心将男性对女性的暴力行为自然化,有关情欲的历史往往与强奸的历史分开。然而,在不同的历史时期,关于情欲的观念对于理解性暴力和男性气质具有重要意义。本文探讨了包括情欲在内的混乱情感观念如何影响了十八世纪苏格兰对强奸的起诉。文章强调,将强奸的法律描述置于指导早期现代社会的 "情感伦理 "框架内,有助于解释在性暴力仍被视为有罪的背景下,强奸的起诉率却很低的原因。
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引用次数: 0
Systemic Silencing: Activism, Memory and Sexual Violence in Indonesia 系统性沉默:印度尼西亚的激进主义、记忆与性暴力
IF 0.5 Q3 AREA STUDIES Pub Date : 2024-06-29 DOI: 10.1080/10371397.2024.2373696
Caroline Norma
Published in Japanese Studies (Ahead of Print, 2024)
发表于《日本研究》(2024 年提前出版)
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引用次数: 0
Mapping and ‘stage-managing’ elections in the long eighteenth century: electoral culture, popular politics and the rhetoric of political space 绘制和 "舞台化 "十八世纪长时期的选举:选举文化、大众政治和政治空间修辞
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-06-22 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae008
Kendra Packham
This article uses diverse forms of electoral culture – including newspapers and magazines, election plays and ballads – to recover an overlooked aspect of perceptions of political corruption in the ‘pre-Reform’ era: the partisan control of electoral space. These forms also present new perspectives on the political engagement of voters and non-voters, showing how perceived spatial corruption was actively exposed to public view. In the process, the article unearths a multimedia precursor to Hogarth’s famous series on the ‘humours’ of an election, which combines text, mapping and visual satire to challenge the legitimacy of an election result, and how the dynamic interplay between drama and electoral culture – including the contemporary puppet play – helped to popularize opposition to the ‘stage-managing’ of elections. Election ‘mapping’ affords new avenues into the eighteenth century as an age both of perceived corruption and of active challenges to that corruption.
本文利用各种形式的选举文化--包括报纸和杂志、选举戏剧和民谣--恢复了 "改革前 "时代人们对政治腐败看法的一个被忽视的方面:党派对选举空间的控制。这些形式也为选民和非选民的政治参与提供了新的视角,展示了人们所认为的空间腐败是如何主动暴露在公众视野中的。在这一过程中,文章发现了霍加斯著名的选举 "幽默 "系列的多媒体前身,该系列结合了文字、地图绘制和视觉讽刺,对选举结果的合法性提出了质疑,并揭示了戏剧与选举文化(包括当代木偶剧)之间的动态互动如何有助于普及对选举 "舞台化 "的反对。选举 "映射 "为了解十八世纪提供了新的途径,十八世纪既是一个腐败的时代,也是一个积极挑战腐败的时代。
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引用次数: 0
Historic doubts about the survival of the Princes in the Tower after 1485 关于 1485 年后塔中王子的存活的历史疑点
IF 0.4 2区 历史学 Q1 HISTORY Pub Date : 2024-06-21 DOI: 10.1093/hisres/htae009
Michael Hicks
This note assesses Philippa Langley’s four proofs for the survival of the two Princes in the Tower after 1485. Neither the Lille document nor supporting evidences prove that Lambert Simnel was really Edward V rather than Edward, earl of Warwick. The Gelderland manifesto recounting the escape of Richard, duke of York and the pretender’s pledge to Duke Albert of Saxony were propaganda as necessary for the imposter Perkin Warbeck as for the real prince. The blemishes of Warbeck’s body cannot be shown to identify him as the younger prince. While useful additions to the continental plots against Henry VII, these new evidences do not prove that either prince lived beyond the reign of Richard III.
本说明评估了菲利帕-兰利(Philippa Langley)关于 1485 年后塔中两位王子存活的四个证据。里尔文件和辅助证据都不能证明兰伯特-西姆内尔真的是爱德华五世,而不是沃里克伯爵爱德华。关于约克公爵理查德逃跑的格尔德兰宣言以及伪装者对萨克森公爵阿尔伯特的保证书,对于冒名顶替的佩金-沃贝克和真正的王子来说都是必要的宣传。沃贝克身上的瑕疵无法证明他就是年轻的王子。虽然这些新证据为欧洲大陆针对亨利七世的阴谋提供了有用的补充,但并不能证明两位王子都活到了理查三世统治时期之后。
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