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Corrigendum to "Image recognition technology provides insights into relationships between anthocyanin degradation and color variation during jet drying of black carrot" [Food Chem. 450 (2024) 139460]. 对 "图像识别技术有助于深入了解黑胡萝卜喷射干燥过程中花青素降解与颜色变化之间的关系 "的更正 [Food Chem. 450 (2024) 139460]。
IF 8.5 1区 农林科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, APPLIED Pub Date : 2024-10-15 Epub Date: 2024-06-08 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2024.139993
Wenfeng Li, Rui Yang, Yiwen Xia, Xinyi Shao, Yimeng Wang, Wanjie Zhang
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引用次数: 0
Implications of seasonal and daily variation on methane and ammonia emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle barns in a Mediterranean climate: A two-year study. 地中海气候下自然通风奶牛牛舍甲烷和氨气排放的季节和日变化影响:为期两年的研究。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-08 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.173734
Ana R F Rodrigues, Maria Eduarda Silva, Vanessa F Silva, Margarida R G Maia, Ana R J Cabrita, Henrique Trindade, António J M Fonseca, José L S Pereira

Seasonal and daily variations of gaseous emissions from naturally ventilated dairy cattle barns are important figures for the establishment of effective and specific mitigation plans. The present study aimed to measure methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions in three naturally ventilated dairy cattle barns covering the four seasons for two consecutive years. In each barn, air samples from five indoor locations were drawn by a multipoint sampler to a photoacoustic infrared multigas monitor, along with temperature and relative humidity. Milk production data were also recorded. Results showed seasonal differences for CH4 and NH3 emissions in the three barns with no clear trends within years. Globally, diel CH4 emissions increased in the daytime with high intra-hour variability. The average hourly CH4 emissions (g h-1 livestock unit-1 (LU)) varied from 8.1 to 11.2 and 6.2 to 20.3 in the dairy barn 1, from 10.1 to 31.4 and 10.9 to 22.8 in the dairy barn 2, and from 1.5 to 8.2 and 13.1 to 22.1 in the dairy barn 3, respectively, in years 1 and 2. Diel NH3 emissions highly varied within hours and increased in the daytime. The average hourly NH3 emissions (g h-1 LU-1) varied from 0.78 to 1.56 and 0.50 to 1.38 in the dairy barn 1, from 1.04 to 3.40 and 0.93 to 1.98 in the dairy barn 2, and from 0.66 to 1.32 and 1.67 to 1.73 in the dairy barn 3, respectively, in years 1 and 2. Moreover, the emission factors of CH4 and NH3 were 309.5 and 30.6 (g day-1 LU-1), respectively, for naturally ventilated dairy cattle barns. Overall, this study provided a detailed characterization of seasonal and daily gaseous emissions variations highlighting the need for future longitudinal emission studies and identifying an opportunity to better adequate the existing mitigation strategies according to season and daytime.

自然通风奶牛舍气体排放的季节和日变化是制定有效和具体的减排计划的重要数据。本研究旨在测量三个自然通风奶牛牛舍连续两年四季的甲烷(CH4)和氨(NH3)排放量。在每个牛舍中,用多点采样器从五个室内位置采集空气样本,连同温度和相对湿度一起送到光声红外多气体监测仪。同时还记录了牛奶产量数据。结果显示,三个牛舍的甲烷(CH4)和氮氧化物(NH3)排放量存在季节性差异,且年内无明显趋势。从整体上看,日间的甲烷排放量增加,小时内的变化很大。第 1 和第 2 年,奶牛舍 1 的平均每小时 CH4 排放量(克 h-1牲畜单位-1(LU))分别为 8.1 至 11.2 和 6.2 至 20.3,奶牛舍 2 为 10.1 至 31.4 和 10.9 至 22.8,奶牛舍 3 为 1.5 至 8.2 和 13.1 至 22.1。昼夜间的 NH3 排放量在数小时内变化很大,在白天则有所增加。1 号牛舍和 2 号牛舍的 NH3 平均小时排放量(g h-1 LU-1)分别为 0.78 至 1.56 和 0.50 至 1.38,2 号牛舍为 1.04 至 3.40 和 0.93 至 1.98,3 号牛舍为 0.66 至 1.32 和 1.67 至 1.73。此外,自然通风牛舍的 CH4 和 NH3 排放系数分别为 309.5 和 30.6(克-日-1 LU-1)。总之,这项研究详细描述了气体排放的季节和日变化特征,强调了未来纵向排放研究的必要性,并为更好地根据季节和日时调整现有减排策略提供了机会。
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引用次数: 0
Joint effects of air pollution and genetic susceptibility on incident primary open-angle glaucoma. 空气污染和遗传易感性对原发性开角型青光眼发病率的共同影响。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-14 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.173935
Hao-Neng Huang, Pan-Pan Zhu, Zhou Yang, Yi-Ming Tao, Xiaofeng Ma, Hai-Bing Yu, Li Li, Chun-Quan Ou

Background: Air pollutants are important exogenous stimulants to eye diseases, but knowledge of associations between long-term exposure to air pollutants and the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is limited. This study aimed to determine whether long-term exposure to air pollutants, genetic susceptibility, and their joint effects lead to an elevated risk of incident POAG.

Methods: This is a population-based prospective cohort study from UK Biobank participants with complete measures of air pollution exposure and polygenetic risk scores. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the individual and joint effects of long-term exposure to air pollutants and genetics on the risk of POAG. In addition, the effect modification of genetic susceptibility was examined on an additive or multiplicative scale.

Results: Among 434,290 participants with a mean (SD) age of 56.5 (8.1) years, 6651 (1.53 %) were diagnosed with POAG during a median follow-up of 13.7 years. Long-term exposure to air pollutants was associated with an increased risk of POAG. The hazard ratios associated with per interquartile range increase in PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, NO2, and NOX individually ranged from 1.027 (95 % CI: 1.001-1.054) to 1.067 (95 % CI: 1.035-1.099). Compared with individuals residing in low-pollution areas and having low polygenic risk scores, the risk of incident POAG increased by 105.5 % (95 % CI: 78.3 %-136.9 %), 79.7 % (95 % CI: 56.5 %-106.5 %), 103.2 % (95 % CI: 76.9 %-133.4 %), 89.4 % (95 % CI: 63.9 %-118.9 %), and 90.2 % (95 % CI: 64.8 %-119.5 %) among those simultaneously exposed to high air pollutants levels and high genetic risk, respectively. Genetic susceptibility interacted with PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 in an additive manner, while no evidence of multiplicative interaction was found in this study. Stratification analyses revealed stronger effects in Black people and the elderly.

Conclusion: Long-term air pollutant exposure was associated with an increased risk of POAG incidence, particularly in the population with high genetic predisposition.

背景:空气污染物是眼科疾病的重要外源性刺激物,但人们对长期暴露于空气污染物与原发性开角型青光眼(POAG)风险之间关系的了解却很有限。本研究旨在确定长期暴露于空气污染物、遗传易感性及其共同作用是否会导致原发性开角型青光眼发病风险升高:这是一项基于人群的前瞻性队列研究,研究对象是英国生物库(UK Biobank)的参与者,他们拥有完整的空气污染暴露测量数据和多基因风险评分。通过拟合 Cox 比例危险模型,评估了长期暴露于空气污染物和遗传对 POAG 风险的个体和联合影响。此外,还对遗传易感性的影响修正进行了加法或乘法检验:在平均(标清)年龄为 56.5(8.1)岁的 434,290 名参与者中,有 6651 人(1.53%)在 13.7 年的中位随访期间被诊断为 POAG。长期暴露于空气污染物与罹患 POAG 的风险增加有关。PM2.5、PM2.5 吸光度、PM10、二氧化氮和氮氧化物每增加一个四分位数范围,其危险比从 1.027(95 % CI:1.001-1.054)到 1.067(95 % CI:1.035-1.099)不等。与居住在低污染地区且多基因风险评分较低的人相比,发生 POAG 的风险分别增加了 105.5 % (95 % CI: 78.3 %-136.9 %)、79.7 % (95 % CI: 56.5 %-106.5 %)、103.2%(95 % CI:76.9 %-133.4 %)、89.4 %(95 % CI:63.9 %-118.9 %)和 90.2 %(95 % CI:64.8 %-119.5 %)。遗传易感性与 PM2.5 吸收率和二氧化氮的相互作用是相加的,而本研究没有发现相乘作用的证据。分层分析显示,黑人和老年人受到的影响更大:结论:长期暴露于空气污染物与POAG发病风险的增加有关,尤其是在具有高度遗传易感性的人群中。
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引用次数: 0
Confined within a sugarcane monoculture: A participatory assessment of water pollution and potential health risks in the community of El Tiple, Colombia. 局限于甘蔗单一种植区:对哥伦比亚 El Tiple 社区水污染和潜在健康风险的参与式评估。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-17 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174072
David Bahamón-Pinzón, Irene Vélez-Torres, Shanna L Estes, Cindy Lee, Arelis Moore, William Bridges, Elizabeth Carraway, Haley Blazer, Héctor Mario Gutiérrez Zapata, Diana Vanegas

Communities neighboring monoculture plantations are vulnerable to different forms of pollution associated with agro-industrial operations. Herein, we examine the case of El Tiple, a rural Afro descendant community embedded within one of the largest sugarcane plantations in the Americas. We implemented a participatory approach to assess water pollution, exposure via water ingestion, and non-carcinogenic health risks associated with the use of local water sources available to the community. We conducted household surveys to unveil demographic characteristics and family dynamics linked to water consumption. Additionally, we measured water quality parameters and assessed the concentration glyphosate, its major metabolite (aminomethylphosphonic acid) and metals and metalloids. Drinking water El Tiple households is sourced from three primary sources: the local aqueduct system, water delivery trucks, and private deep wells. Tests on water samples from both the local aqueduct and delivery trucks showed no traces of pesticides, metals, or metalloids surpassing regulatory limits set by Colombian or EPA standards. However, we found concentration of contaminants of primary concern, including mercury (up to 0.0052 ppm) and lead (up to 0.0375 ppm) that exceed the permissible regulatory thresholds in water from groundwater wells. Residents of the peripheric subdivisions of El Tiple are four times more reliant on well water extraction than residents of the central area of the town due to lack of access to public drinking water and sanitation infrastructure. Finally, adult women and school-age children have a higher health risk associated with exposure to local pollutants than adult men due to their constant presence in the town. We conclude that expanding the coverage of clean water and sanitation infrastructure to include all households of the community would be the most recommended measure to minimize exposure and risk via ingestion of water pollutants.

邻近单一种植园的社区很容易受到与农用工业生产相关的各种形式的污染。在这里,我们研究了 El Tiple 的案例,这是一个非洲裔农村社区,位于美洲最大的甘蔗种植园内。我们采用参与式方法来评估水污染、通过摄入水的接触以及与使用该社区可用的当地水源相关的非致癌健康风险。我们进行了家庭调查,以揭示与水消费相关的人口特征和家庭动态。此外,我们还测量了水质参数,并评估了草甘膦、其主要代谢物(氨甲基膦酸)以及金属和类金属的浓度。蒂普尔家庭的饮用水主要有三个来源:当地自来水管道系统、运水卡车和私人深井。对来自当地自来水管道和运水车的水样进行的检测显示,其中的杀虫剂、金属或类金属含量均未超过哥伦比亚或美国环保署规定的标准。不过,我们在地下水井的水样中发现了主要污染物的浓度,包括汞(高达 0.0052 ppm)和铅(高达 0.0375 ppm),超过了允许的监管阈值。由于缺乏公共饮用水和卫生基础设施,El Tiple 外围分区的居民对井水开采的依赖程度是该镇中心区居民的四倍。最后,由于成年女性和学龄儿童经常出现在小镇上,他们接触当地污染物的健康风险要高于成年男性。我们的结论是,扩大清洁水和卫生基础设施的覆盖范围,将社区的所有家庭都包括在内,将是最大限度地减少接触和摄入水污染物风险的最值得推荐的措施。
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引用次数: 0
Saline mine water influences eukaryote life in shallow groundwater of a tropical sandy stream. 盐矿水影响热带沙质溪流浅层地下水中的真核生物。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-19 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174101
Lisa Chandler, Andrew J Harford, Grant C Hose, Chris L Humphrey, Anthony Chariton, Paul Greenfield, Jenny Davis

Eukaryotic communities in groundwater may be particularly sensitive to disturbance because they are adapted to stable environmental conditions and often have narrow spatial distributions. Traditional methods for characterising these communities, focussing on groundwater-inhabiting macro- and meiofauna (stygofauna), are challenging because of limited taxonomic knowledge and expertise (particularly in less-explored regions), and the time and expense of morphological identification. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of eukaryote communities in shallow groundwater to mine water discharge containing elevated concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulfate (SO4). The study was undertaken in a shallow sand bed aquifer within a wet-dry tropical setting. The aquifer, featuring a saline mine water gradient primarily composed of elevated Mg and SO4, was sampled from piezometers in the creek channel upstream and downstream of the mine water influence during the dry season when only subsurface water flow was present. Groundwater communities were characterised using both morphological assessments of stygofauna from net samples and environmental DNA (eDNA) targeting the 18S rDNA and COI mtDNA genes. eDNA data revealed significant shifts in community composition in response to mine waters, contrasting with findings from traditional morphological composition data. Changes in communities determined using eDNA data were notably associated with concentrations of SO42-, Mg2+ and Na+, and water levels in the piezometers. This underscores the importance of incorporating molecular approaches in impact assessments, as relying solely on traditional stygofauna sampling methods in similar environments may lead to inaccurate conclusions about the responses of the assemblage to studied impacts.

地下水中的真核生物群落可能对干扰特别敏感,因为它们适应稳定的环境条件,而且通常空间分布狭窄。由于分类知识和专业知识有限(尤其是在勘探较少的地区)以及形态鉴定所需的时间和费用,描述这些群落特征的传统方法(侧重于栖息于地下水中的大型动物和小型动物(stygofauna))具有挑战性。本研究的主要目的是评估浅层地下水中的真核生物群落对含有高浓度镁(Mg)和硫酸盐(SO4)的矿井水排放的脆弱性。研究在热带干湿交替环境中的浅层砂床含水层中进行。含水层主要由高浓度镁和硫酸盐(SO4)组成,具有盐碱矿井水梯度,在旱季只有地下水流的情况下,从矿井水上游和下游河道的压强计中对含水层进行采样。eDNA 数据揭示了群落组成在矿井水影响下的显著变化,这与传统形态组成数据的结果形成了鲜明对比。利用 eDNA 数据确定的群落变化与 SO42-、Mg2+、Na+ 的浓度以及压水计中的水位密切相关。这强调了在影响评估中采用分子方法的重要性,因为在类似环境中仅依靠传统的小型底栖动物采样方法可能会导致对所研究影响的反应得出不准确的结论。
{"title":"Saline mine water influences eukaryote life in shallow groundwater of a tropical sandy stream.","authors":"Lisa Chandler, Andrew J Harford, Grant C Hose, Chris L Humphrey, Anthony Chariton, Paul Greenfield, Jenny Davis","doi":"10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174101","DOIUrl":"10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174101","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>Eukaryotic communities in groundwater may be particularly sensitive to disturbance because they are adapted to stable environmental conditions and often have narrow spatial distributions. Traditional methods for characterising these communities, focussing on groundwater-inhabiting macro- and meiofauna (stygofauna), are challenging because of limited taxonomic knowledge and expertise (particularly in less-explored regions), and the time and expense of morphological identification. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the vulnerability of eukaryote communities in shallow groundwater to mine water discharge containing elevated concentrations of magnesium (Mg) and sulfate (SO<sub>4</sub>). The study was undertaken in a shallow sand bed aquifer within a wet-dry tropical setting. The aquifer, featuring a saline mine water gradient primarily composed of elevated Mg and SO<sub>4</sub>, was sampled from piezometers in the creek channel upstream and downstream of the mine water influence during the dry season when only subsurface water flow was present. Groundwater communities were characterised using both morphological assessments of stygofauna from net samples and environmental DNA (eDNA) targeting the 18S rDNA and COI mtDNA genes. eDNA data revealed significant shifts in community composition in response to mine waters, contrasting with findings from traditional morphological composition data. Changes in communities determined using eDNA data were notably associated with concentrations of SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup> and Na<sup>+</sup>, and water levels in the piezometers. This underscores the importance of incorporating molecular approaches in impact assessments, as relying solely on traditional stygofauna sampling methods in similar environments may lead to inaccurate conclusions about the responses of the assemblage to studied impacts.</p>","PeriodicalId":422,"journal":{"name":"Science of the Total Environment","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":8.2,"publicationDate":"2024-10-10","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141436469","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":1,"RegionCategory":"环境科学与生态学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Community-level risk assessments on organophosphate esters in the sediments from the Bohai Sea of China based on multimodal species sensitivity distributions coupled with the equilibrium partitioning method. 基于多模式物种敏感性分布和平衡分配法的中国渤海沉积物中有机磷酸酯的群落级风险评估。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-21 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174162
Tianyi Quan, Chunliang Huang, Ziwei Yao, Zhenyang Liu, Xindong Ma, Dongfei Han, Yanjie Qi

Organophosphate esters (OPEs), increasingly used as alternatives to brominated flame retardants, are ubiquitous in the global aquatic environment. Despite their potential toxicological impact on ecosystems, community-level risk assessments for OPEs in sediments remain scarce. This study investigated OPE occurrences and composition characteristics in the Bohai Sea's sediments and appraised both individual and joint ecological risks posed by characteristic OPE homologs using ten commonly used species sensitivity distribution (SSD) models, integrating acute-to-chronic conversion and phase equilibrium partitioning. OPEs were detected across all sediment samples, with total concentrations ranging from 0.213 ng/g dry weight (dw) to 91.1 ng/g dw. The predominant congeners included tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), triisobutyl phosphate (TiBP), tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triphenylphosphine oxide. Best-fit SSD models varied among TnBP, TiBP, TCEP, TCPP, and TDCIPP, demonstrating Sigmoid, Burr III, Sigmoid, Burr III, and Burr III, respectively. The same parametric model demonstrated variability in the fitting process for different OPE congeners, which also happened to the fitting results of ten parametric models for the same specific characteristic congener, underscoring the necessity of employing multiple models for precise community-level risk assessments. Hazard concentrations for a 5% cumulative probability were 0.116 mg/L, 2.88 mg/L, 1.30 mg/L, 1.44 mg/L, and 1.85 mg/L for each respective congener. The resulting risk quotients (RQ) and overall hazard index (HI) were selected as criteria to assess the individual and joint ecological risks of OPEs in sediments from the Bohai Sea, respectively. RQ and HI were both below 0.1, indicating a low risk to the local ecosystems. Multi-model SSD analysis could provide refined data for community-level risk evaluation, offering valuable insights for the development of evidence-based environmental standards and pollution control strategies.

有机磷酸酯 (OPE) 越来越多地被用作溴化阻燃剂的替代品,在全球水生环境中无处不在。尽管它们对生态系统具有潜在的毒理影响,但针对沉积物中 OPE 的群落级风险评估仍然很少。本研究调查了渤海沉积物中 OPE 的出现情况和组成特征,并使用十种常用的物种敏感性分布(SSD)模型,结合急性-慢性转换和相平衡分配,评估了特征 OPE 同族体造成的个体和联合生态风险。在所有沉积物样本中都检测到了 OPE,总浓度从 0.213 纳克/克干重(dw)到 91.1 纳克/克干重不等。主要同系物包括磷酸三正丁酯 (TnBP)、磷酸三异丁酯 (TiBP)、磷酸三(2-乙基己基)酯、磷酸三(2-氯乙基)酯 (TCEP)、磷酸三(1-氯-2-丙基)酯 (TCPP)、磷酸三(1, 3-二氯-2-丙基)酯 (TDCIPP) 和氧化三苯基膦。TnBP、TiBP、TCEP、TCPP 和 TDCIPP 的最佳拟合 SSD 模型各不相同,分别显示出 Sigmoid、Burr III、Sigmoid、Burr III 和 Burr III。同一参数模型在不同 OPE 同系物的拟合过程中表现出差异,十个参数模型对同一特定特征同系物的拟合结果也是如此,这突出表明了采用多个模型进行精确的社区级风险评估的必要性。在 5% 的累积概率下,每种同系物的危害浓度分别为 0.116 毫克/升、2.88 毫克/升、1.30 毫克/升、1.44 毫克/升和 1.85 毫克/升。由此得出的风险商数(RQ)和总体危害指数(HI)分别被选为评估渤海沉积物中 OPEs 的个体和联合生态风险的标准。RQ 和 HI 均低于 0.1,表明对当地生态系统的风险较低。多模型 SSD 分析可为群落级风险评估提供精细数据,为制定循证环境标准和污染控制策略提供有价值的见解。
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引用次数: 0
Regional differences in molecular characteristics of atmospheric water-soluble organic carbon over northern China: Comparison of remote, rural, and urban environments. 中国北方大气水溶性有机碳分子特征的区域差异:偏远地区、农村和城市环境的比较。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-23 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174170
Hui Wen, Yue Zhou, Yuhui He, Tianshuang Wang, Wei Pu, Baoqing Zhang, Jiecan Cui, Jun Liu, Xin Wang

Atmospheric water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) is a critical component of airborne particulates. It significantly affects the Earth's energy balance, air quality, and human health. Despite its importance, the molecular composition and sources of WSOC remain unclear, particularly in non-urban areas. In this study, we collected total suspended particulate (TSP) samples from three sites in northern China: Erenhot (remote site), Zhangbei (rural site), and Jinan (urban site). The WSOC components were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The results showed that the formula numbers of identified compounds exhibited a decreasing trend of Jinan (2647) > Zhangbei (2046) > Erenhot (1399). Among the assigned formulas, CHO compounds were the most abundant category for all three sites, accounting for 33 %-38 % of the identified compounds, followed by the CHON compounds with contributions of 27 %-30 %. In the remote site of Erenhot, CHO compounds were dominated by oxidized unsaturated organic compounds, and CHON compounds were mainly low-oxygenated aliphatic compounds, suggesting a significant influence of primary emissions. In contrast, the urban site of Jinan showed higher contributions of CHO and CHON compounds with elevated oxidation degrees, indicating the influence of more extensive secondary oxidation processes. Atmospheric WSOC in Erenhot and Zhangbei had abundant reduced sulfur-containing species, likely from coal or diesel combustion, while that in Jinan was characterized by aliphatic organosulfates and nitrooxy-organosulfates, which are mainly associated with traffic emissions and biogenetic sources, respectively. These findings reveal significant differences in the molecular composition of WSOC in different atmospheric environments and improve our understanding of the chemical properties, potential sources, and transformations of organic aerosols.

大气中的水溶性有机碳(WSOC)是空气中微粒的重要组成部分。它对地球的能量平衡、空气质量和人类健康有重大影响。尽管水溶性有机碳非常重要,但其分子组成和来源仍不清楚,尤其是在非城市地区。在这项研究中,我们从中国北方的三个地点采集了总悬浮颗粒物(TSP)样本:二连浩特(偏远地区)、张北(农村地区)和济南(城市地区)。采用高效液相色谱-高分辨质谱法对 WSOC 成分进行了分析。结果表明,已鉴定化合物的配方数呈现出济南(2647)>张北(2046)>二连浩特(1399)的递减趋势。在所分配的配方中,CHO化合物是三个地点含量最高的类别,占鉴定化合物的33%-38%,其次是CHON化合物,占27%-30%。在二连浩特偏远地区,CHO 化合物主要是氧化不饱和有机化合物,CHON 化合物主要是低氧脂肪族化合物,这表明原生排放物的影响很大。相比之下,济南城区的 CHO 和 CHON 化合物氧化度较高,表明受到了更广泛的二次氧化过程的影响。二连浩特和张北大气中的 WSOC 含有丰富的还原型含硫物质,可能来自煤或柴油燃烧,而济南大气中的 WSOC 以脂肪族有机硫酸盐和硝基氧有机硫酸盐为特征,分别与交通排放和生物源有关。这些发现揭示了不同大气环境中 WSOC 分子组成的显著差异,加深了我们对有机气溶胶化学特性、潜在来源和转化的理解。
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引用次数: 0
Settling velocity of microplastics in turbulent open-channel flow. 微塑料在明渠紊流中的沉降速度。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-24 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174179
Usama Ijaz, Abul B M Baki, Weiming Wu, Wenming Zhang

The settling behavior of microplastics (MPs) plays a pivotal role in their transport and fate in aquatic environments, but the dominant mechanisms and physics governing the settling of MPs in rivers remain poorly understood. To gain mechanistic insights into the velocity lag of MPs in an open-channel flume under different turbulent flow conditions, an experimental study was conducted using three types of MPs: polystyrene, cellulose acetate, and acrylic, of sphere-shaped particles with diameters ranging from 1 mm to 5 mm. A particle tracking technique was employed to record and analyze the MPs velocity within turbulent flows. The results showed a variation in the vertical settling velocity of MPs ωMP ranging from -26 % to +16 %, when compared to their counterparts in still water (ωs). A new formula for the drag coefficient (Cd) of MP particles was developed by introducing the suspension number (us). The developed Cd formula was used to calculate the resultant velocity lag VMP, with a mean relative error of 16 % compared with the measured values. Further, the study highlighted that the MPs with large Stokes numbers are mainly driven by their own inertia and turbulence has less influence on their settling behavior. This study is crucial for understanding the settling behavior of MPs in turbulent flows and developing their transport and fate models for MPs in riverine systems.

微塑料(MPs)的沉降行为对其在水生环境中的迁移和归宿起着举足轻重的作用,但人们对支配微塑料在河流中沉降的主要机制和物理学原理仍然知之甚少。为了从机理上了解不同湍流条件下 MPs 在明渠水槽中的速度滞后情况,我们使用了三种类型的 MPs(聚苯乙烯、醋酸纤维素和丙烯酸)进行了实验研究,这些球形颗粒的直径在 1 毫米到 5 毫米之间。采用颗粒跟踪技术记录和分析了湍流中 MPs 的速度。结果表明,与静水中的同类颗粒(ωs)相比,MPs 垂直沉降速度 ωMP 的变化范围在 -26 % 到 +16 % 之间。通过引入悬浮数 (u∗/ωs),建立了 MP 颗粒阻力系数 (Cd) 的新公式。利用所开发的 Cd 公式计算出了结果速度滞后(VMP),与测量值相比,平均相对误差为 16%。此外,研究还强调,斯托克斯数较大的 MPs 主要受自身惯性的驱动,湍流对其沉降行为的影响较小。这项研究对于了解湍流中 MPs 的沉降行为以及开发河道系统中 MPs 的迁移和归宿模型至关重要。
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引用次数: 0
Application of observed data denoising based on variational mode decomposition in groundwater pollution source recognition. 基于变模分解的观测数据去噪在地下水污染源识别中的应用。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-28 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174374
Zibo Wang, Wenxi Lu, Zhenbo Chang

Groundwater pollution source recognition (GPSR) is a prerequisite for subsequent pollution remediation and risk assessment work. The actual observed data are the most important known condition in GPSR, but the observed data can be contaminated with noise in real cases. This may directly affect the recognition results. Therefore, denoising is important. However, in different practical situations, the noise attribute (e.g., noise level) and observed data attribute (e.g., observed frequency) may be different. Therefore, it is necessary to study the applicability of denoising. Current studies have two deficiencies. First, when dealing with complex nonlinear and non-stationary situations, the effect of previous denoising methods needs to be improved. Second, previous attempts to analyze the applicability of denoising in GPSR have not been comprehensive enough because they only consider the influence of the noise attribute, while overlooking the observed data attribute. To resolve these issues, this study adopted the variational mode decomposition (VMD) to perform denoising on the noisy observed data in GPSR for the first time. It further explored the influence of different factors on the denoising effect. The tests were conducted under 12 different scenarios. Then, we expanded the study to include not only the noise attribute (noise level) but also the observed data attribute (observed frequency), thus providing a more comprehensive analysis of the applicability of denoising in GPSR. Additionally, we used a new heuristic optimization algorithm, the collective decision optimization algorithm, to improve the recognition accuracy. Four representative scenarios were adopted to test the ideas. The results showed that the VMD performed well under various scenarios, and the denoising effect diminished as the noise level increased and the observed frequency decreased. The denoising was more effective for GPSR with high noise levels and multiple observed frequencies. The collective decision optimization algorithm had a good inversion accuracy and strong robustness.

地下水污染源识别(GPSR)是后续污染修复和风险评估工作的先决条件。实际观测数据是 GPSR 中最重要的已知条件,但在实际情况中,观测数据可能会受到噪声污染。这可能会直接影响识别结果。因此,去噪非常重要。然而,在不同的实际情况下,噪声属性(如噪声水平)和观测数据属性(如观测频率)可能不同。因此,有必要研究去噪的适用性。目前的研究有两个不足之处。首先,在处理复杂的非线性和非稳态情况时,以往去噪方法的效果有待提高。其次,以往分析去噪在 GPSR 中适用性的尝试不够全面,因为它们只考虑了噪声属性的影响,而忽略了观测数据属性的影响。为了解决这些问题,本研究首次采用变模分解(VMD)对 GPSR 中的噪声观测数据进行去噪处理。研究进一步探讨了不同因素对去噪效果的影响。测试在 12 种不同情况下进行。然后,我们扩大了研究范围,不仅包括噪声属性(噪声水平),还包括观测数据属性(观测频率),从而更全面地分析了去噪在 GPSR 中的适用性。此外,我们还采用了一种新的启发式优化算法--集体决策优化算法,以提高识别精度。我们采用了四个具有代表性的场景来检验这些想法。结果表明,VMD 在各种场景下均表现良好,去噪效果随着噪声水平的增加和观测频率的降低而减弱。对于高噪声水平和多观测频率的 GPSR,去噪效果更好。集体决策优化算法具有良好的反演精度和较强的鲁棒性。
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引用次数: 0
Recognition of small water bodies under complex terrain based on SAR and optical image fusion algorithm. 基于合成孔径雷达和光学图像融合算法的复杂地形下小型水体识别。
IF 8.2 1区 环境科学与生态学 Q1 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Pub Date : 2024-10-10 Epub Date: 2024-06-28 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2024.174329
Songling Yang, Lihua Wang, Yi Yuan, Li Fan, Yuchen Wu, Weiwei Sun, Gang Yang

Understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of small water bodies is essential for managing water resources, crafting conservation policies, and preserving watershed ecosystems and biodiversity. However, existing studies often rely on a single remote sensing data source (optical or microwave), focusing on large-scale, flat areas and lacking comprehensive monitoring of small water bodies in complex terrain. Therefore, considering the complementary advantages of multisource remote sensing (multispectral and SAR), this paper proposes a multispectral and SAR fusion algorithm, named Multispectral and SAR Fusion algorithm (MASF), to better capture the remote sensing characteristics of small water bodies in complex areas. Based on this, a dataset containing spectral, texture, and geometric features is constructed, and multi-scale segmentation and random forest algorithms are applied for identification of small water bodies in complex terrain. The results demonstrate that the proposed fusion algorithm MASF exhibits minimal spectral distortion (SAM < 3.5, ERGAS <21, RMSE <0.01) and robust spatial feature enhancement (PSNR >40, SSIM >0.999, CC > 0.99). The Overall Accuracy (OA) and Kappa coefficients for both experimental areas surpassed 0.9. For rivers and reservoirs, both Producer's Accuracy (PA) and User's Accuracy (UA) exceeded 0.9. The UA for agricultural ponds exceeded 0.8. Comparative analysis with three other types of water-related data products shows that the freshwater identification results in this study have certain advantages in local small water bodies. Our research holds significant implications for the utilization of water resources in mountainous areas, prevention and control of floods and floods, as well as the development of aquaculture industry.

了解小型水体的时空分布对于管理水资源、制定保护政策以及保护流域生态系统和生物多样性至关重要。然而,现有的研究往往依赖于单一的遥感数据源(光学或微波),侧重于大规模的平坦区域,缺乏对复杂地形中的小型水体的全面监测。因此,考虑到多源遥感(多光谱和合成孔径雷达)的互补优势,本文提出了一种多光谱和合成孔径雷达融合算法,命名为多光谱和合成孔径雷达融合算法(MASF),以更好地捕捉复杂地区小型水体的遥感特征。在此基础上,构建了包含光谱、纹理和几何特征的数据集,并应用多尺度分割和随机森林算法识别复杂地形中的小型水体。结果表明,所提出的融合算法 MASF 的光谱失真最小(SAM 40,SSIM >0.999,CC >0.99)。两个实验区的总体精度(OA)和 Kappa 系数均超过 0.9。河流和水库的生产者准确度(PA)和用户准确度(UA)均超过 0.9。农用池塘的用户精度超过 0.8。与其他三种与水有关的数据产品的比较分析表明,本研究的淡水识别结果在当地小型水体中具有一定的优势。我们的研究对山区水资源利用、洪涝灾害防治以及水产业发展具有重要意义。
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引用次数: 0
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