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A Case Study in Assessing a Potential Severity Framework for Incidents from a Decadal Sample 从十年样本中评估事件潜在严重性框架的案例研究
IF 0.73 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00026
Raul B. Lara, Juliana H. Halbach, Steve Nakasaki, Sam Y. Paik
The primary objective of this case study is to determine the applicability and feasibility of a framework that leverages occupational incident details to prospectively identify “potential Serious Injury or Fatality” (pSIF) cases. This study comprehensively reviewed a random sample of 1,081 injury and illness cases across 21 generalized incident types spanning over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a U.S. Department of Energy research and development facility with more than 9,000 employees. The review applied a general framework that classified each case on information suitability, potential severity, and future incident mitigation. The findings from the study indicate that 86.6% of the cases had sufficient information to make a high-confidence determination on potential severity, underscoring the feasibility of applying this general framework. Additionally, cases with a higher pSIF score had, on average, a higher level of institutional response. Implementing a simplified methodology for incident classification that emphasizes incidents that pose high potential severity, regardless of incident type, can help LLNL prioritize resources and tailor responses to such incidents using a graded approach. LLNL has recognized the value of this capability and is integrating the framework into their injury and illness process in the 2024 calendar year.
本案例研究的主要目的是确定一个框架的适用性和可行性,该框架可利用职业事故细节来前瞻性地识别 "潜在的严重伤害或死亡"(pSIF)案例。这项研究全面审查了劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家实验室 (LLNL) 十多年来 21 种通用事件类型中的 1,081 个伤病案例的随机样本,劳伦斯利弗莫尔国家实验室是美国能源部的一个研发机构,拥有 9,000 多名员工。审查采用了一个通用框架,根据信息适用性、潜在严重性和未来事件缓解程度对每个案例进行分类。研究结果表明,86.6% 的案例有足够的信息来对潜在严重性做出高置信度的判断,这强调了应用此通用框架的可行性。此外,pSIF 分数较高的案例,其机构响应的平均水平也较高。实施简化的事件分类方法,强调潜在严重性高的事件(无论事件类型如何),可帮助 LLNL 确定资源的优先级,并采用分级方法对此类事件做出有针对性的响应。LLNL 已认识到这一能力的价值,并将在 2024 日历年度将该框架纳入其伤病流程。
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引用次数: 0
Reconstruction of Curriculum System for Chemical Safety Undergraduate Education under Emerging Engineering Education Requirements 新兴工程教育要求下化学安全本科教育课程体系的重构
IF 0.73 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00017
Jianwen Zhang, Siyu Peng, Pengchao Wang, Feilong Zhang, Qianlin Wang, Zhan Dou
Against the backdrop of the latest engineering and technical disciplines, cross-disciplinary fusion is a new strategy to cultivate high-level composite talents in the chemical safety field. Regulating China’s severe safety production situation is crucial. As an essential source of talent, universities should promptly reconstruct the discipline system according to the new framework under the guiding spirit of Emerging Engineering Education. The innovation and application of intelligent technology have led to a technological revolution in chemistry fields. Therefore, universities should reasonably adjust and optimize the knowledge structure to address the social situations and the development needs of the industry for ensuring the safety of the entire chemical production process. This paper investigates the chemical industry safety production to innovatively present the fresh concept of “5 flows, 3 tactics, and 3 controls,” with “5 flows” as the core, “3 tactics” as the focus, and “3 controls” as the goal. This concept serves as a significant reference for the reformation of the safety curriculum system.
在最新工程技术学科背景下,学科交叉融合是培养化工安全领域高层次复合型人才的新战略。规范我国严峻的安全生产形势至关重要。作为人才的重要来源,高校应在新兴工程教育精神的指导下,及时按照新的框架重构学科体系。智能技术的创新与应用引发了化学领域的技术革命。因此,高校应针对社会形势和行业发展需求,合理调整和优化知识结构,确保化工生产全过程的安全。本文通过对化工行业安全生产的研究,创新性地提出了以 "五流 "为核心、"三策 "为重点、"三控 "为目标的 "五流三策三控 "全新理念。这一理念对安全课程体系改革具有重要的借鉴意义。
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引用次数: 0
Spotlights: Untargeted Forensic Drug Detection, Burn Pit Smoke Inhalation, and Problems in the Friction Sensitivity Literature 聚焦:非目标法医药物检测、烧伤坑烟雾吸入以及摩擦灵敏度文献中的问题
IF 0.73 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00052
Lauren Goulding
This article references 3 other publications. This article has not yet been cited by other publications. This article references 3 other publications.
本文引用了 3 篇其他出版物。本文尚未被其他出版物引用。本文引用了 3 篇其他出版物。
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引用次数: 0
Community Connections Committee: How the Joint Safety Team of the University of Minnesota Innovates Promoting Vertical Safety Engagement 社区联系委员会:明尼苏达大学联合安全小组如何创新促进纵向安全参与
IF 0.73 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00027
Vilma S. M. Brandao, Gretchen S. Burke, Zoe A. Maxwell, Steven K. Butler, Xin I. N. Dong, Jeffrey Paz Buenaflor, Mckenna G. Hanson, Taysir K. Bader, Celina M. Harris, Harrison Frisk, Brian Andersson, Brady L. Bresnahan
The Joint Safety Team (JST) of the University of Minnesota Twin Cities is a well-established researcher-led safety team that recently developed a new Community Connections Committee (CCC) to build on its history of collaboration with other student-led Lab Safety Teams (LSTs) around the country. The CCC aims to engage with the larger scientific community by connecting with high school science instructors, early stage researchers at primarily undergraduate institutions (PUIs), and local chemical industries. As part of its early work, the CCC developed a safety workshop for high school chemistry teachers to help them identify and address common safety issues. Participants are introduced to fundamental safety concepts and new tools to understand and address safety concerns through classroom lectures and hands-on laboratories, all aimed at improving safety in their classrooms. Through an ongoing exchange of experiences and resources with PUIs, the CCC helped undergraduate students and faculty create an independent and resourceful student safety team that has engaged students in safety accountability, fostered leadership, and influenced safety practices at the PUI. Finally, this work discusses the collaboration between the CCC and industry partners that focuses on informing University of Minnesota graduate students of the safety standards of the industry so that they can best prepare themselves to be desirable hires and therefore benefit industries. Overall, the CCC is a powerful tool to expand the JST’s positive impacts to the broader chemistry community, helping pass on the JST’s safety practices to PUIs and high schools while also learning of industrial safety standards.
明尼苏达大学双城分校的联合安全团队 (JST) 是一个由研究人员领导的成熟安全团队,最近成立了一个新的社区联系委员会 (CCC),以巩固其与全国其他由学生领导的实验室安全团队 (LST) 的合作历史。社区联系委员会旨在通过与高中科学教师、以本科院校为主的早期研究人员以及当地化工行业建立联系,与更广泛的科学界进行接触。作为早期工作的一部分,CCC 为高中化学教师开发了一个安全讲习班,帮助他们识别和解决常见的安全问题。通过课堂讲座和动手实验室,向学员介绍基本的安全概念和新的工具,以了解和解决安全问题,所有这些都旨在提高他们课堂上的安全。通过与 PUI 不断交流经验和资源,CCC 帮助本科生和教师创建了一个独立、足智多谋的学生安全团队,让学生参与安全责任、培养领导力并影响 PUI 的安全实践。最后,本作品讨论了 CCC 与行业合作伙伴之间的合作,其重点是让明尼苏达大学的研究生了解行业的安全标准,以便他们为成为理想的员工做好最佳准备,从而造福行业。总之,CCC 是将 JST 的积极影响扩大到更广泛的化学界的有力工具,它有助于将 JST 的安全实践传授给 PUI 和高中,同时也让他们了解行业安全标准。
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引用次数: 0
The Gist of the List 清单要点
IF 0.73 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00053
Lauren Goulding
The EPA held a webinar on DCM rule changes on June 6, 2024. Slides for the webinar are available here: https://www.epa.gov/chemicals-under-tsca/register-epas-webinar-final-methylene-chloride-risk-management-rule. MIT maintains a central database of green chemistry solvent substitutions and resources to help with solvent selection: https://ehs.mit.edu/green-chemistry/. This article references 4 other publications. This article has not yet been cited by other publications. This article references 4 other publications.
美国环保局于 2024 年 6 月 6 日举办了一次关于 DCM 规则变更的网络研讨会。网络研讨会的幻灯片可在此处获取:https://www.epa.gov/chemicals-under-tsca/register-epas-webinar-final-methylene-chloride-risk-management-rule。麻省理工学院拥有一个关于绿色化学溶剂替代品和资源的中央数据库,可帮助进行溶剂选择:https://ehs.mit.edu/green-chemistry/。本文引用了 4 篇其他出版物。本文尚未被其他出版物引用。本文引用了 4 篇其他出版物。
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引用次数: 0
The Chemical Exposure Multiverse: A Call for Papers that Provide Accurate Toxicity and Exposure Data in the Laboratory and Beyond 化学品暴露的多重宇宙:征集能在实验室内外提供准确毒性和暴露数据的论文
IF 0.73 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00055
Pamela Pollet, Jeremy Breuzard
Published as part of ACS Chemical Health & Safety virtual special issue “The Chemical Exposure Multiverse”. ACS Chemical Health& Safety (ACS CHAS) is calling for papers for a Virtual Special Issue (VSI) that represents different types of chemical exposures that workers, researchers, and the public may encounter. As previous publications in ACS CHAS have shown, (1−8) the prevention, mitigation, management, and response of occupational chemical exposures (chronic and acute) is multifaceted. For example, maker spaces, palm oil mills, laboratories, medical facilities, and art restoration must all quantify and control chemical exposures albeit in different ways. This VSI will showcase high-impact contributions in the field by collating perspectives and research from all the relevant disciplines such as toxicology, industrial and chemical hygiene, chemistry, engineering, epidemiology, health, education, public health, and public policy. Societies across the world are dependent upon synthetic chemicals to support modern living standards. More than ever, it is necessary to maximize the benefits of chemical usage while simultaneously minimizing the inherent risks associated with the transfer of chemicals from the controlled industrial environment to diverse settings, where they are repeatedly encountered by a workforce less able to recognize and mitigate hazards. The United Nations recognized these challenges in its 2022 sustainable development goals (SDGs), (9) which among others include the (i) assurance of good health and well-being (3), (ii) reduction of inequalities (10), (iii) decent work and economic growth (8), (iv) innovation in industry and infrastructure (9), and (v) responsible consumption and production (12). It is therefore imperative to support the U.N. SDGs by collecting, validating, and analyzing data on chemical exposure in diverse occupational environments and, ultimately, to provide reliable scientific reports and tools to inform effective decision-making and risk management. There have been tremendous progress and development to establish accurate toxicities and exposure limits as well as countless efforts to support productivity while protecting human health. This issue aims at capturing, highlighting and disseminating the current research, new developments and studies as well as challenges, creative solutions, best practices, and accounts from the “trenches”. The intentional multidisciplinary perspective adopted here is essential for a scientifically valid understanding of potential risks and their mitigation (Figure 1). As a consequence, we invite contributions of all manuscript types that address topics within ACS CHAS scope, including (but not limited to): Occupational and environmental exposures Toxicology and toxicological studies Epidemiology Chemical safety education Public health and public safety accounts Chemical hygiene Chemical safety and safety culture management Modelin
作为 ACS 化学健康与安全虚拟特刊 "化学暴露的多重宇宙 "的一部分发表。美国化学学会化学健康与安全分会(ACS CHAS)正在为虚拟特刊(VSI)征集论文,该特刊介绍了工人、研究人员和公众可能遇到的不同类型的化学暴露。正如 ACS CHAS 以前的出版物所示,(1-8)职业化学品暴露(慢性和急性)的预防、缓解、管理和应对是多方面的。例如,创客空间、棕榈油厂、实验室、医疗设施和艺术品修复都必须量化和控制化学品暴露,尽管方式各不相同。本 VSI 将通过整理毒理学、工业和化学卫生学、化学、工程学、流行病学、卫生学、教育学、公共卫生和公共政策等所有相关学科的观点和研究,展示该领域具有影响力的贡献。世界各地的社会都依赖合成化学品来维持现代生活水平。现在比以往任何时候都更有必要在最大限度地利用化学品带来的好处的同时,最大限度地降低化学品从受控工业环境转移到各种环境所带来的固有风险。联合国在其 2022 年可持续发展目标(SDGs)(9) 中承认了这些挑战,其中包括:(i) 确保良好的健康和福祉 (3),(ii) 减少不平等 (10),(iii) 体面工作和经济增长 (8),(iv) 工业和基础设施创新 (9),(v) 负责任的消费和生产 (12)。因此,当务之急是通过收集、验证和分析各种职业环境中的化学品暴露数据来支持联合国可持续发展目标,并最终提供可靠的科学报告和工具,为有效决策和风险管理提供依据。在建立准确的毒性和接触限值方面取得了巨大的进步和发展,并在保护人类健康的同时为提高生产力做出了无数努力。本期旨在收集、强调和传播当前的研究、新的发展和研究成果,以及来自 "战壕 "的挑战、创造性的解决方案、最佳实践和介绍。本期特意采用了多学科视角,这对于科学有效地理解潜在风险和降低风险至关重要(图 1)。因此,我们诚邀各种类型的稿件投稿,讨论 ACS CHAS 范围内的主题,包括(但不限于): 1:职业和环境暴露 毒理学和毒理学研究 流行病学 化学安全教育 公共卫生和公共安全账户 化学卫生 化学安全和安全文化管理 化学暴露建模 图 1.化学品暴露的多重宇宙。我们的目标是在 2025 年 2 月之前提交 "化学品暴露多重宇宙 "的稿件,并在夏季出版最终的 VSI。在像这样的 VSI 中,ACS 会在文章录用后不久在定期刊物上滚动出版。一旦所有 VSI 论文准备就绪并在网上发表,ACS 会将其收集到一个网页上,使每位作者的作品都有更多的曝光机会。作为组织工作的客座编辑,我们期待广大作者和读者对这本 VSI 产生浓厚的兴趣。本文引用了 9 篇其他出版物。本文尚未被其他出版物引用。图 1.化学品暴露的多重宇宙。本文参考了 9 篇其他出版物。
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引用次数: 0
Nanoparticle Usage in Leather Processing: Worker Safety and Health 皮革加工中的纳米粒子使用:工人安全与健康
IF 0.73 Q2 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-05-06 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00006
Claudia Cirillo, Mariagrazia Iuliano, Davide Scarpa, Luca Gallucci, Claudia Florio, Gaetano Maffei, Andrea Loi, Maria Sarno
The focus on the leather market has recently been on the rise due to the global increase in demand for leather products, driven by rising disposable income levels and improving standards of living among the expanding middle-class population. To enhance the performance of the final leather product, we have employed nanoparticles (NPs) across various stages of leather manufacturing. Specifically, in the finishing process─the ultimate stage of leather production─numerous studies have underscored the significance of Ag, TiO2, and SiO2 NPs in significantly enhancing various characteristics of leather. On the other hand, the rapid growth in the application of NPs to leather finishing, and more in general in the leather industry, has occurred concomitantly with increased attention toward potential risks associated with their usage in biological systems and ecosystems. Given these considerations, the objective of this critical review is to provide a detailed and thorough analysis of the factors influencing the toxicity and cytotoxicity of nanoparticles commonly adopted in the leather finishing stage, with particular emphasis on Ag, TiO2, and SiO2 NPs, along with their effects on the safety and health of workers. Moreover, the following study aims to identify necessary precautions and safety measures that the leather industry should implement when handling nanoparticles during the finishing stage.
由于可支配收入水平不断提高,中产阶级人口不断扩大,生活水平不断改善,导致全球对皮革产品的需求增加,皮革市场的关注度近来不断上升。为了提高最终皮革产品的性能,我们在皮革制造的各个阶段都采用了纳米粒子(NPs)。具体而言,在皮革生产的最终阶段--涂饰过程中,大量研究强调了Ag、TiO2 和 SiO2 NPs 在显著提高皮革各种特性方面的重要作用。另一方面,随着氮氧化物在皮革涂饰乃至整个皮革行业应用的快速增长,人们对其在生物系统和生态系统中使用的潜在风险也越来越关注。鉴于这些考虑因素,本评论旨在对皮革涂饰阶段常用纳米粒子的毒性和细胞毒性的影响因素进行详细而透彻的分析,尤其侧重于 Ag、TiO2 和 SiO2 NPs 及其对工人安全和健康的影响。此外,以下研究旨在确定皮革行业在涂饰阶段处理纳米粒子时应采取的必要预防措施和安全措施。
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引用次数: 0
Empowering Student Laboratory Safety Officer Programs to Strengthen Academic Safety Culture 赋予学生实验室安全员计划权力,加强学术安全文化
IF 0.73 Q2 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-05-02 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.3c00103
Caroline M. Donaghy, Adelina Oronova, Aishanee Sur, Daniel D. Hu, Emily E. A. Robinson, E. Rachel Wiley, Noah J. Gibson, Sarah Mutchek, Brady L. Bresnahan, Hossain Shadman, Abbigayle E. Cuomo, Christy Lynn Dyer, Mariya Aleksich, Monica Nyansa
A student Laboratory Safety Officer (LSO) program formalizes a position often found within academic institutions. Through clearly defined responsibilities and effective communication between an LSO and their principal investigators, environmental health and safety office, and department administrators, this program can be effectively used to establish a baseline for safety standards. This article outlines pathways for an institution to establish or strengthen a student LSO program. The strength within this program goes beyond defined responsibilities, where the program’s initiatives can deepen a department-wide community while improving access to resources and advancing leadership skills. The common hurdles faced by these programs are discussed at length for new and existing programs to gain insights into how to address those obstacles while also elucidating the pathways to empower the program. Faculty and student buy-in is fundamental for the success of this program, which often is best addressed by giving visibility to the program itself and its outstanding participants. This article gives an overview of laboratory safety teams (LSTs), a separate graduate student-led laboratory safety initiative, and how an LST can be used to support and even serve as an LSO program. The implementation of a student LSO program has the potential to foster a greater sense of community and safety culture within a department, while giving students the opportunity to enhance their leadership and laboratory skills.
学生实验室安全主任(LSO)计划将学术机构中常见的职位正规化。通过明确规定 LSO 的职责,以及 LSO 与其主要研究人员、环境健康与安全办公室和部门管理人员之间的有效沟通,该计划可以有效地用于建立安全标准基准。本文概述了院校建立或加强学生 LSO 计划的途径。该计划的优势并不局限于规定的职责,其举措可以深化整个部门的社区,同时改善资源获取途径并提高领导技能。我们详细讨论了新项目和现有项目所面临的共同障碍,以便深入了解如何解决这些障碍,同时阐明增强项目能力的途径。教师和学生的认同是这一计划取得成功的基础,而提高计划本身及其优秀参与者的知名度往往是解决这一问题的最佳途径。本文概述了实验室安全团队(LST)--一种由研究生领导的独立的实验室安全计划,以及如何利用 LST 来支持甚至充当 LSO 计划。学生 LSO 计划的实施有可能在一个系内培养更强的集体意识和安全文化,同时让学生有机会提高自己的领导能力和实验室技能。
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引用次数: 0
Airborne Hexavalent Chromium and Particulate Matter Emissions during the Laser Cutting of Leathers 激光切割皮革过程中的空气传播六价铬和颗粒物排放量
IF 0.73 Q2 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-04-26 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.4c00010
Xinyi Niu, Peyton Hall, Jun Wang, Steven Lange
Workers may be at risk of exposure to airborne contaminants, including hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and particles of diverse shapes and sizes during the laser cutting of leathers because of the extensive chemicals employed in leather tanning processes. Desktop carbon dioxide (CO2) laser engraving machines have gained popularity in various industries; however, airborne contaminant exposure in the laser cutting process of leathers remains unclear. This study investigated Cr(VI) and particle emissions during laser cutting/engraving of leather treated with various tanning methods. Six tanning methods (chrome 1-, chrome 2-, vegetable 1-, vegetable 2-, oil-, and alum-tanned) were studied at three laser power settings (15, 45, and 75%). A personal air sampler coupled with a sampling cassette and ISO 17075–2 evaluation were used to sample and analyze airborne Cr(VI) concentrations, respectively. Two real-time aerosol monitors were utilized to assess particulate concentrations and size distributions from 10 nm to 10 μm. High concentrations of Cr(VI) were detected in chrome-tanned leathers when the ventilation system was off, indicating the critical role of ventilation. The particle number concentrations were statistically significantly affected by various leather tanning methods and laser powers. Chrome 1-tanned leather exhibited the highest concentration of nanoparticles (<420 nm) at low (14,733 #/cm3) and medium (20,725 #/cm3) laser powers, while veg 2-tanned leather produced the highest micrometer-sized particle (>0.3 μm) concentration, over 1,600 #/cm3 at all laser powers. The medium laser power exhibited higher nanoparticles than other powers when laser cutting most tanned leathers. The higher power resulted in the generation of smaller-sized particles for chrome-, oil-, and alum-tanned leathers. These findings underscore the importance of adequate ventilation and controlled laser power settings in minimizing health risks during the leather laser cutting processes.
在激光切割皮革的过程中,由于皮革鞣制过程中使用了大量化学品,工人可能会有接触空气中污染物的风险,包括六价铬(Cr(VI))以及各种形状和大小的颗粒。台式二氧化碳(CO2)激光雕刻机在各行各业越来越受欢迎;然而,在皮革的激光切割过程中接触到的空气传播污染物仍不清楚。本研究调查了激光切割/雕刻经过各种鞣革方法处理的皮革过程中六价铬和微粒的排放情况。在三种激光功率设置(15%、45% 和 75%)下对六种鞣革方法(铬 1、铬 2、植物 1、植物 2、油鞣和矾鞣)进行了研究。个人空气采样器与采样盒和 ISO 17075-2 评估相结合,分别用于采样和分析空气中六价铬的浓度。两台实时气溶胶监测仪用于评估 10 纳米到 10 微米的微粒浓度和粒度分布。当通风系统关闭时,铬鞣革中检测到的六价铬浓度较高,这表明通风系统起着至关重要的作用。从统计学角度看,各种皮革鞣制方法和激光功率对粒子数量浓度有显著影响。铬 1 鞣革在低激光功率(14,733 #/cm3)和中激光功率(20,725 #/cm3)下显示出最高的纳米粒子浓度(420 nm),而素 2 鞣革在所有激光功率下产生的微米级粒子(0.3 μm)浓度最高,超过 1,600 #/cm3。在激光切割大多数鞣革时,中等激光功率比其他功率显示出更高的纳米颗粒浓度。在铬鞣革、油鞣革和矾鞣革中,较高功率产生的颗粒尺寸较小。这些发现强调了充分通风和控制激光功率设置对于在皮革激光切割过程中最大限度地降低健康风险的重要性。
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引用次数: 0
Working Together: Chemical Safety and Education 合作:化学品安全与教育
IF 3 Q2 Medicine Pub Date : 2023-09-25 DOI: 10.1021/acs.chas.3c00082
Mary Beth Mulcahy*,  and , Thomas A. Holme*, 
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引用次数: 0
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ACS Chemical Health & Safety
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