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Insights and Nanoarchitectonics in Fe-Substituted Newer NaSICON Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3 Cathodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries 用于钠离子电池的铁取代新型 NaSICON Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3 阴极的见解和纳米结构
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02196
Subramaniam Gokulnath, Senthilkumar Krishnan, Veena Yadav, Marappan Sathish
Sodium-ion batteries are receiving a lot of interest in new electrochemical storage systems because they are less expensive than lithium-ion batteries. NaSICON-structured cathode materials such as Na3MnZr(PO4)3, Na4MnV(PO4)3, and Na4MnCr(PO4)3 are attractive because of their high voltage and capacity. As with different transition metals, the performance of cathode materials varies. In the present research, the partial substitution of Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3 with three different Fe concentrations was performed and their electrochemical performance was investigated. The refined X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of synthesized materials show a rhombohedral structure over an Rc space group. The Fe substitution had an unfavorable influence on the electrochemical performance, resulting in a reduced capacity of 86 mAh g–1. Aside from diminished specific capacity, replacing Mn with Fe improved the rate performance in the three compositions by reducing polarization in redox pairs. The enhanced rate performance when incorporating more Fe atoms was explained by the sodium-ion migration barrier in the material, which was predicted using theoretical bond valence site energy (BVSE) analysis and reflected by the diffusion coefficient calculated using the experimental galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) approach.
由于钠离子电池比锂离子电池便宜,因此在新型电化学存储系统中备受关注。NaSICON 结构的正极材料(如 Na3MnZr(PO4)3、Na4MnV(PO4)3 和 Na4MnCr(PO4)3)因其高电压和高容量而备受青睐。与不同的过渡金属一样,阴极材料的性能也各不相同。本研究用三种不同浓度的铁对 Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3进行了部分取代,并对其电化学性能进行了研究。合成材料的精制 X 射线衍射 (XRD) 图样显示出 R3̅c 空间群上的斜方体结构。铁的取代对电化学性能产生了不利影响,导致容量降低到 86 mAh g-1。除了比容量降低之外,用铁取代锰还能通过减少氧化还原对中的极化来改善三种成分的速率性能。材料中的钠离子迁移障碍解释了加入更多铁原子后速率性能提高的原因,这种迁移障碍是通过理论键价位能(BVSE)分析预测的,并通过实验电静电间歇滴定技术(GITT)方法计算的扩散系数反映出来。
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引用次数: 0
Graded Evaluation and Controls on In Situ Oil Content within Lacustrine Shale of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China 中国松辽盆地上白垩统青山口组湖相页岩原位含油率分级评价及控制研究
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02003
Xindi Shao, Yan Song, Lin Jiang, Xingzhi Ma, Zhenxue Jiang
A pyrolysis parameter S1 is widely used to evaluate the oiliness of rocks. When the S1 (free hydrocarbon) is used to evaluate shale oil resources, there is often a phenomenon of light hydrocarbon loss and heavy hydrocarbon loss, resulting in underestimation of the amount of resources. To accurately estimate the oil content of shale, this study establishes a light hydrocarbon recovery coefficient curve based on routine rock pyrolysis and related geochemical tests, and calculates a heavy hydrocarbon correction coefficient. This study have ascertained the in situ oil content of the Qingshankou Formation shale in the northern part of the Songliao Basin, identified the controlling factors of in situ oil content, and quantitatively assessed the mobility and movable resource volume of shale oil. The research reveals that light hydrocarbon loss ranges from 0.01 to 8.69 mg HC/g Rock, heavy hydrocarbon loss varies between 0.04 and 4.05 mg HC/g Rock, and in situ oil content spans from 0.04 to 16.38 mg HC/g Rock. The latter accounts for roughly 3.9 to 6.3 times the measured S1, indicating that the district is mainly enriched and moderately riched with resources. Organic matter abundance, thermal evolution degree, and reservoir structure are the principal factors controlling the in situ oil content of shale. Movable oil content ranges from 0.02 to 11.30 mg HC/g Rock, and the movable resource quantity approximates 84.84 × 108 t, constituting about 59.45% of the total resources, suggesting large potential and high mobility. The results of this study can provide theoretical and practical guidance for shale oil resource evaluation and sweet spot optimization in the regional area.
热解参数 S1 被广泛用于评价岩石的油性。用 S1(游离烃)评价页岩油资源量时,往往存在轻烃损失、重烃损失的现象,导致资源量被低估。为了准确估算页岩的含油量,本研究根据常规的岩石热解和相关地球化学测试,建立了轻烃采收率系数曲线,并计算了重烃修正系数。本研究查明了松辽盆地北部青山口地层页岩的原位含油率,确定了原位含油率的控制因素,定量评估了页岩油的流动性和可移动资源量。研究发现,轻烃损失量在 0.01 至 8.69 毫克 HC/g 岩石之间,重烃损失量在 0.04 至 4.05 毫克 HC/g 岩石之间,原位含油量在 0.04 至 16.38 毫克 HC/g 岩石之间。后者约为实测 S1 的 3.9 至 6.3 倍,表明该区主要富集和中等富集资源。有机质丰度、热演化程度和储层结构是控制页岩原位含油量的主要因素。页岩可移动含油量在 0.02 至 11.30 mg HC/g 之间,可移动资源量约为 84.84 × 108 t,约占资源总量的 59.45%,表明页岩资源潜力大、移动性强。研究结果可为该地区页岩油资源评价和甜点优化提供理论和实践指导。
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引用次数: 0
Insight into Fluid Occurrence and Pore Structure of Lacustrine Shale from the Cretaceous Tengger Formation, A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin, China 中国二连盆地阿南麓白垩系腾格里地层湖相页岩流体赋存及孔隙结构揭示
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02071
Xin Xiang, Weining Dan, Shuangfang Lu, Pengfei Zhang, Bin Li, Lanzhu Cao, Yan Wei, Xiwei Li, Jie Fan, Junjie Wang, Quanfeng Yang, Xiuli Wei, Ge Gao
Fluid occurrence and pore structure are prerequisites for exploring the enrichment pattern of shale oil. The Cretaceous Tengger Formation in the A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin, China, contains abundant shale oil resources. In this study, a series of NMR T2 and T1–T2, combined with Rock-Eval, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption–desorption (LTNA/D), were conducted to clarify the fluid occurrence and pore structure characteristics of the shale oil reservoirs. Meanwhile, the influences of the pore structure on fluid occurrence were discussed. Results suggest that the in situ occurrences and distributions of pore water and oil can be well analyzed by the NMR T1–T2 technique combined with water and oil restorations. The selected shales are characterized by high contents of capillary-bound water and bound oil, and bound oil mainly contributes to shale oil, followed by adsorbed and movable oil. The shales at the as-received state have lost half of the capillary-bound water, as well as most of the bound and movable oil, while adsorbed oil is less affected. The pore spaces primarily consist of interparticle pores related to brittle granules, followed by intraparticle pores in clay mineral aggregates. The T2 spectra are characterized by the dominant peak p2 ranging from 0.7 to 20 ms, corresponding to the developed mesopores (100–1000 nm). Fluid occurrence is closely related to pore structures. Capillary-bound water primarily occurs in micropores (<25 nm) and minipores (25–100 nm) and coexists with adsorbed oil. Mesopores and macropores (>1000 nm) are mainly saturated with bound and movable oil, respectively. The developed large pores generally correspond to less capillary-bound water but more shale oil, especially bound and movable oil. These findings may improve the understanding of enrichment mechanisms of shale oil and provide the references for sweet spot exploitation in the A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin.
流体赋存和孔隙结构是探索页岩油富集模式的先决条件。中国二连盆地阿南相白垩系腾格里地层蕴藏着丰富的页岩油资源。本研究通过一系列核磁共振 T2、T1-T2、Rock-Eval、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、低温氮吸附-解吸(LTNA/D)等手段,阐明了页岩油储层的流体赋存和孔隙结构特征。同时,讨论了孔隙结构对流体发生的影响。结果表明,核磁共振 T1-T2 技术结合水和油还原可以很好地分析孔隙水和油的原位出现和分布。所选页岩的特点是毛细管结合水和结合油含量高,结合油是页岩油的主要成分,其次是吸附油和可移动油。接收状态下的页岩失去了一半的毛细管结合水以及大部分结合油和可移动油,而吸附油受到的影响较小。孔隙主要包括与脆性颗粒有关的颗粒间孔隙,其次是粘土矿物聚集体中的颗粒内孔隙。T2 光谱的主要峰值 p2 在 0.7 到 20 ms 之间,与发育的中孔(100-1000 nm)相对应。流体的出现与孔隙结构密切相关。毛细管结合水主要出现在微孔(25 nm)和小孔(25-100 nm)中,并与吸附油共存。中孔和大孔(>1000 nm)主要分别吸附有结合油和可移动油。发育的大孔隙一般对应较少的毛细管结合水,但较多的页岩油,尤其是结合油和可移动油。这些发现可加深对页岩油富集机理的认识,为二连盆地阿南沙格甜点开采提供参考。
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引用次数: 0
Multiwell Fracturing Characteristic in Layered Heterogeneous Formation and the Optimization of Stimulated Reservoir Volume 层状异质地层中的多井压裂特征及优化压裂储层体积
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01545
Xiao Ke, Quan Wang, Hao Yu, XiuYuan Chen, YiLun Zhong, YingQi Li, HengAn Wu
Hydraulic fracturing within multiwell pads is considered an effective technique for enhancing the recovery of oil/gas resources, but the fracture propagation behaviors have not been fully understood, typically considering the layered heterogeneous construction and intricate stress interference effects. This work establishes a multiwell fracturing model based on the three-dimensional displacement and pore pressure coupled cohesive method to precisely characterize the propagation and morphology features of the hydraulic fracture. The flow behavior in the well follows the Bernoulli equation, and the fluid distribution at each perforation point is automatically regulated with the fluid pipe element. The fracturing model is validated with the analytical solution for the penny-shaped fracture. Various fracturing scenarios, including the spatial relations of wells and clusters and the geological conditions are thoroughly revealed. The results demonstrate that the layered formation significantly influences the stress interference between wells and clusters and thus alters the fracture propagation. It can be observed that the intercluster stress interference is weakened when confined within the layered formation, where the fractures grow uniformly along the lateral direction even with a small cluster spacing. When the wells are located at different layers, three typical propagation modes are summarized as lateral propagation, penetration, and aggregation, depending on the in situ stress, rock strength, and fracture energy of different layers in the formation. Meanwhile, optimization of the well pattern is discussed from the perspective of the fracture area to achieve the maximization of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). These insights are helpful for the design and implementation of multiwell fracturing technology in tight formation with layered heterogeneous construction.
多井场水力压裂被认为是提高石油/天然气资源采收率的有效技术,但压裂传播行为尚未得到充分理解,通常是考虑到层状异质构造和复杂的应力干扰效应。本研究基于三维位移和孔隙压力耦合内聚法建立了多井压裂模型,以精确描述水力压裂的传播和形态特征。井内流动行为遵循伯努利方程,每个射孔点的流体分布由流体管元素自动调节。压裂模型与笔形压裂的分析解进行了验证。彻底揭示了各种压裂方案,包括井群空间关系和地质条件。结果表明,层状地层极大地影响了井与井簇之间的应力干涉,从而改变了压裂传播。在层状地层中,即使井簇间距较小,裂缝也会沿横向均匀生长。当井位于不同层位时,根据地层中不同层位的原位应力、岩石强度和裂缝能量,可总结出三种典型的传播模式,即横向传播、渗透和聚集。同时,从压裂面积的角度讨论了井型的优化问题,以实现激发储层体积(SRV)的最大化。这些见解有助于在具有层状异质构造的致密地层中设计和实施多井压裂技术。
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引用次数: 0
Fuel Ignition Delay Maps for Molecularly Controlled Combustion 分子控制燃烧的燃料点火延迟图
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00662
Marcel Neumann, Jan G. Rittig, Ahmed Ben Letaief, Christian Honecker, Philipp Ackermann, Alexander Mitsos, Manuel Dahmen, Stefan Pischinger
Molecularly controlled combustion systems (MCCSs) combine the advantages of compression-ignition and spark-ignition engines by employing both a low reactivity fuel and a high reactivity fuel (HRF). To optimize the MCCS, fuels must be tailored to the engine requirements with respect to fuel reactivity. We aim at deriving requirements for HRFs and identification of suitable HRF candidates. Single-cylinder experiments are performed to assess the suitability of conventional reactivity indicators for MCCS. Fuel ignition delay time (IDT) maps are proposed as alternative reactivity indicators conveying more information. The maps are constructed through five representative IDT measurements at varying temperatures and pressures within the constant volume combustion chamber of the advanced fuel ignition delay analyzer (AFIDA). Specifically, the IDT maps cover the temperature and pressure range of 500–700 °C and 10–35 bar, respectively; and the IDT is measured at the four corner points of that range and the center point. We present measured IDT maps for more than 50 oxygenated and nonoxygenated hydrocarbon species and analyze suitability for MCCSs, e.g., 1,3-dioxane and 1-heptanol are found as possible HRF. The measurement data are further utilized to develop a graph neural network (GNN) model that can predict IDT maps directly from the molecular structure with high accuracy, constituting a first step toward in-silico screening of HRFs for MCCSs.
分子控制燃烧系统(MCCS)通过同时使用低反应活性燃料和高反应活性燃料(HRF),将压燃式发动机和火花点火式发动机的优点结合起来。为了优化 MCCS,燃料必须符合发动机对燃料反应性的要求。我们的目标是推导出对高活性燃料的要求,并确定合适的候选高活性燃料。我们进行了单缸实验,以评估传统反应性指标对 MCCS 的适用性。我们提出了燃料点火延迟时间(IDT)图,作为可传递更多信息的替代反应性指标。通过在先进燃料点火延迟分析仪(AFIDA)的恒容燃烧室内不同温度和压力下进行的五次有代表性的 IDT 测量,构建了该图谱。具体来说,IDT 图覆盖的温度和压力范围分别为 500-700 °C 和 10-35 巴;IDT 在该范围的四个角点和中心点进行测量。我们展示了 50 多种含氧和非含氧碳氢化合物的 IDT 测量图,并分析了其是否适合 MCCS,例如,发现 1,3-二氧六环和 1-庚醇可能是 HRF。测量数据被进一步用于开发图神经网络(GNN)模型,该模型可直接从分子结构高精度地预测 IDT 图,为在 MCCS 中筛选 HRF 迈出了第一步。
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引用次数: 0
Iron Catalyzed Methane Pyrolysis in a Stratified Fluidized Bed Reactor 分层流化床反应器中的铁催化甲烷热解
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01484
Shailesh Pathak, Eric McFarland
Methane pyrolysis at 950 °C and 1 atm was investigated on iron containing catalysts derived from a magnetite (Fe3O4) ore in a semibatch fluidized bed reactor. The magnetite particulates (∼10–50 μm) were observed to undergo reduction and fragmentation to approximately 100 nm iron–iron carbide catalysts in 100% methane as the fluidized bed reactor was heated to 950 °C at high gas flow rates. After prereduction, the flow rate was decreased to a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 3.5 h–1, and the activity was observed to increase at 950 °C to a maximum methane conversion of approximately 90% (turnover frequency ∼ 0.3 s–1). At maximum activity, the C/Fe ratio was approximately 2. With increasing time on stream, the catalyst activity and particle density decreased. As solid carbon was deposited on the iron containing catalyst, the semibatch fluidized bed volume, C/Fe, and void fraction increased at a constant WHSV. The graphitic carbon product accumulated in and around the catalyst particles with increasing time, consistent with the observed decrease in activity as access of methane to the catalyst surface was limited by diffusion through an increasingly impermeable graphite barrier. The C/Fe mass ratio of the deactivated catalyst particles was observed to be approximately 5.
在半间歇流化床反应器中,研究人员使用磁铁矿(Fe3O4)矿石制成的含铁催化剂在 950 °C 和 1 atm 条件下热解甲烷。当流化床反应器在高气体流速下加热到 950 ℃ 时,观察到磁铁矿颗粒(10 ∼ 50 μm)在 100% 甲烷中发生还原和破碎,变成约 100 nm 的碳化铁催化剂。预还原后,流速降至 3.5 h-1 的重量小时空间速度 (WHSV),在 950 °C 下观察到活性增加到约 90% 的最大甲烷转化率(翻转频率 ∼ 0.3 s-1)。在活性最高时,C/Fe 比率约为 2。随着在流时间的增加,催化剂活性和颗粒密度都有所下降。随着固体碳在含铁催化剂上的沉积,在 WHSV 不变的情况下,半批次流化床体积、C/Fe 和空隙率都有所增加。随着时间的增加,石墨碳产物在催化剂颗粒内部和周围积累,这与所观察到的活性下降一致,因为甲烷通过越来越不透气的石墨屏障的扩散限制了甲烷进入催化剂表面。据观察,失活催化剂颗粒的 C/Fe 质量比约为 5。
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引用次数: 0
Zr-Based Metal–Organic Framework (UiO-66) Doped with Rare-Earth Element (La, Y)-Supported Polyoxometalate Liquid for Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene Oxidation 掺杂稀土元素(La,Y)的 Zr 基金属有机框架(UiO-66)支撑的聚氧化金属酸盐液体用于二苯并噻吩氧化脱硫
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01125
Mingyu Liao, Yuanjie Xiao, Xiaolin Pi, Linfeng Zhang, Miaomiao Zheng, Jianbin Liu, Huadong Wu, Jia Guo
By designing metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) doped with rare-earth elements, we can enhance catalytic activity and stability in a novel way. In the realm of oxidative desulfurization (ODS), polyoxometalate-ionic liquids have outstanding desulfurization performance. Herein, to create La-UiO-66 and Y-UiO-66, respectively, rare-earth elements (REs) of yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) were doped into the Zr-based metal–organic framework UiO-66. After that, the catalyst [C12mim]3PW12O40/RE-UiO-66 was prepared by supporting a type of polyoxometalate-ionic liquid [C12mim]3PW12O40 with a large specific surface area and stable structure on RE-UiO-66 (RE = La or Y). The catalyst was characterized and analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and other methods. The ODS reaction of the dibenzothiophene model oil was conducted in the oxidative desulfurization experiment with H2O2 as the oxidant and [C12mim]3PW12O40/RE-UiO-66 as the catalyst, and the ideal reaction conditions were determined. Under the optimum reaction conditions (T = 60 °C, O/S = 5), due to the strength of electron transfer over the catalysts, the DBT removal efficiencies of [C12mim]3PW12O40/0.18La-UiO-66–25% and [C12mim]3PW12O40/0.09Y-UiO-66–25% were 100% in 40 min and 97% in 60 min, respectively. The desulfurization efficiency was maintained at 91% after 13 cycles with [C12mim]3PW12O40/0.18La-UiO-66–25% as a catalyst. In addition, a proposed reaction mechanism for the ODS reaction over this catalyst was presented.
通过设计掺杂稀土元素的金属有机框架(MOFs),我们可以以一种新颖的方式提高催化活性和稳定性。在氧化脱硫(ODS)领域,聚氧化金属离子液体具有出色的脱硫性能。为了制备 La-UiO-66 和 Y-UiO-66,在基于 Zr 的金属有机框架 UiO-66 中分别掺入了钇(Y)和镧(La)稀土元素。然后,在 RE-UiO-66 (RE = La 或 Y)上支撑一种比表面积大、结构稳定的聚氧化金属离子液体 [C12mim]3PW12O40,制备出催化剂 [C12mim]3PW12O40/RE-UiO-66。催化剂通过 XRD、FT-IR、SEM 等方法进行了表征和分析。以 H2O2 为氧化剂,[C12mim]3PW12O40/RE-UiO-66 为催化剂,在氧化脱硫实验中进行了二苯并噻吩模型油的 ODS 反应,并确定了理想的反应条件。在最佳反应条件下(T = 60 °C,O/S = 5),由于催化剂上电子传递的强度,[C12mim]3PW12O40/0.18La-UiO-66-25%和[C12mim]3PW12O40/0.09Y-UiO-66-25%的DBT脱除效率分别为40分钟100%和60分钟97%。以[C12mim]3PW12O40/0.18La-UiO-66-25%为催化剂,经过 13 个循环后,脱硫效率保持在 91%。此外,还提出了在该催化剂上进行 ODS 反应的反应机理。
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引用次数: 0
TiO2/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Xanthan Gum Nanofluid: A Promising Candidate for Enhanced Oil Recovery 二氧化钛/十二烷基硫酸钠/黄原胶纳米流体:有望用于提高石油采收率的纳米流体
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01925
Snehangshu Paine, Kalisadhan Mukherjee, Achinta Bera
In this study, a TiO2/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/xanthan gum (XG) nanofluid is prepared to investigate its effectiveness in additional oil recovery. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via the sol–gel method and subsequently calcined at 350 °C. The crystalline nature and microstructural features of the synthesized TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy. The TiO2/SDS/XG nanofluid was prepared using a probe sonicator until a clear dispersion of the mixture was achieved. The particle size of the nanofluid was determined through a dynamic light scattering analyzer, revealing a size of approximately 12–18 nm. The prepared nanofluid altered the wettability toward water-wet and reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and the nanofluid to 0.00771 mN/m, along with surface tension values dropping to 33.2 mN/m. Such changes led to a reduction in capillary force, which in turn facilitated enhanced oil recovery (EOR). An imbibition study was also conducted using collected sandstone cores to measure excess oil recovery in the presence of the prepared nanofluid at a temperature of 50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The imbibition study showed that the nanofluid comprising 0.1% XG, 0.1% SDS, and 0.01% TiO2 recovered 28% of the original oil in place, which is 33.33% higher than the formulation with 0.1% XG and 0.1% SDS and 100% higher than the 0.1% XG alone. Hence, the proposed formulation shows promise as a potential candidate for chemical EOR methods.
本研究制备了二氧化钛/十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)/黄原胶(XG)纳米流体,以探讨其在额外采油方面的有效性。TiO2 纳米粒子通过溶胶-凝胶法合成,随后在 350 °C 煅烧。利用 X 射线衍射、傅立叶变换红外线和扫描电子显微镜对合成 TiO2 的结晶性质和微观结构特征进行了表征。TiO2/SDS/XG 纳米流体的制备使用了探针声波仪,直至混合物达到清晰的分散状态。通过动态光散射分析仪测定了纳米流体的粒度,结果显示其粒度约为 12-18 纳米。制备的纳米流体改变了润湿性,使其趋向于水-湿,并将原油与纳米流体之间的界面张力降至 0.00771 mN/m,同时表面张力值降至 33.2 mN/m。这种变化导致毛细管力降低,进而促进了提高石油采收率(EOR)。此外,还利用收集的砂岩岩心进行了浸润研究,以测量在温度为 50 °C、压力为大气压的条件下,制备的纳米流体存在时的过量采油情况。浸泡研究表明,由 0.1% XG、0.1% SDS 和 0.01% TiO2 组成的纳米流体可就地回收 28% 的原油,比含 0.1% XG 和 0.1% SDS 的配方高出 33.33%,比仅含 0.1% XG 的配方高出 100%。因此,拟议配方有望成为化学 EOR 方法的潜在候选物质。
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引用次数: 0
Promoting N–H Bond Formation by an Alkali Metal Hydride under Confinement 在限制条件下促进碱金属氢化物形成 N-H 键
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01071
Meng Zhu, Haolan Tao, Cheng Lian, Honglai Liu
The activation of dinitrogen is the key step in ammonia production, which is usually conducted at transition-metal catalysts (Fe and Ru) with the condition of high temperatures and pressures (400–500 °C and 10–30 MPa). A recent development in catalytic ammonia synthesis is the use of potassium hydride-intercalated graphite (KxHyCz) as catalysts, which can activate dinitrogen at relatively moderate temperatures and pressures (250–400 °C and 1 MPa) without expensive transition metals. The nanoconfinement of alkali metal hydride between the graphene layers plays an important role in the activation and conversion of dinitrogen. It is attractive to further elucidate the interplay rules between nitrogen-based intermediates, metal hydride, and graphene layers. In this work, we designed three kinds of alkali metal hydride (MH)-intercalated graphene catalysts (LixHC96, NaxHC96, KxHC96) as a platform for exploring the reaction mechanism of nitrogen at two-dimensional confinement. We found that the alternating associative pathway of the ammonia synthesis is dominant over the MH-intercalated graphene catalysts. The activated *H from MH contributes to the hydrogenation process of N2 to form NH3 molecules. The graphene layers with Å-level confined spacing promote the electron transfer between the reaction intermediate and alkali metals, which is favorable for the regeneration of the MHC96 catalytic system. This work provides theoretical insights into the design of alkali metal hydride-based catalysts for nitrogen activation.
二氮的活化是合成氨生产的关键步骤,通常在过渡金属催化剂(Fe 和 Ru)的高温高压条件下(400-500 °C 和 10-30 兆帕)进行。催化氨合成的最新发展是使用氢化钾嵌层石墨 (KxHyCz) 作为催化剂,这种催化剂可以在相对温和的温度和压力(250-400 °C 和 1 兆帕)下活化二氮,而无需使用昂贵的过渡金属。石墨烯层之间碱金属氢化物的纳米融合在二氮的活化和转化过程中发挥了重要作用。进一步阐明氮基中间体、金属氢化物和石墨烯层之间的相互作用规律具有吸引力。在这项工作中,我们设计了三种碱金属氢化物(MH)插层石墨烯催化剂(LixHC96、NaxHC96、KxHC96),以此为平台探索二维约束下氮的反应机理。我们发现,在 MH 嵌体石墨烯催化剂上,氨合成的交替缔合途径占主导地位。来自 MH 的活化 *H 促进了 N2 的氢化过程,形成 NH3 分子。具有埃级约束间距的石墨烯层促进了反应中间体与碱金属之间的电子转移,有利于 MHC96 催化体系的再生。这项研究为设计基于碱金属氢化物的氮活化催化剂提供了理论依据。
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引用次数: 0
Hydrate Decomposition Inhibitors by Phase Change Cooling Storage Based on an Electrostatic Spraying Method 基于静电喷涂法的相变冷却储存水合物分解抑制剂
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术 Q2 ENERGY & FUELS Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02093
Jianxun Guo, Jintang Wang, Bo Liao, Mei-Chun Li, Xindi Lv, Qi Wang, Yiyao Li, Wenbiao Li, Ke Zhao, Na Wu, Jinsheng Sun
The heat transfer of drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir is the main cause of reservoir hydrate decomposition and borehole wall instability. Impeding or retarding heat transfer from drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir is key to maintaining reservoir hydrate stability. In order to intelligently control the temperature of the drilling fluid in the wellbore, phase change microcapsules were prepared using an innovative method of electrostatic spraying and physical cross-linking with mixed alkane as the core material and sodium alginate as the shell material. This synthesis method can control the particle size of phase change microcapsules. The phase change microcapsules were characterized by SEM, optical microscopy, and particle size analyzer. The experimental results presented that the latent heat of melting of the phase change material is 158.04 J/g, and the latent heat of solidification is 161.63 J/g. In addition, the microcapsules also have excellent thermal stability, and the thermal conductivity coefficient is 0.384 W/(m·°C). The results of the hydrate decomposition experiment show that the phase change microcapsules can effectively delay the decomposition of hydrates. These results provide valuable insights into a better understanding of the rational development of high-performance hydrate decomposition inhibitors for drilling fluids and the construction of drilling fluid systems.
钻井液向水合物储层的传热是储层水合物分解和井壁不稳定的主要原因。阻碍或延缓钻井液向水合物储层的传热是保持储层水合物稳定性的关键。为了智能控制井筒中钻井液的温度,采用创新的静电喷涂和物理交联方法,以混合烷烃为核心材料,海藻酸钠为外壳材料,制备了相变微胶囊。这种合成方法可以控制相变微胶囊的粒径。利用扫描电镜、光学显微镜和粒度分析仪对相变微胶囊进行了表征。实验结果表明,相变材料的熔化潜热为 158.04 J/g,凝固潜热为 161.63 J/g。此外,微胶囊还具有优异的热稳定性,导热系数为 0.384 W/(m-°C)。水合物分解实验结果表明,相变微胶囊能有效延缓水合物的分解。这些结果为更好地理解高性能钻井液水合物分解抑制剂的合理开发和钻井液体系的构建提供了宝贵的见解。
{"title":"Hydrate Decomposition Inhibitors by Phase Change Cooling Storage Based on an Electrostatic Spraying Method","authors":"Jianxun Guo, Jintang Wang, Bo Liao, Mei-Chun Li, Xindi Lv, Qi Wang, Yiyao Li, Wenbiao Li, Ke Zhao, Na Wu, Jinsheng Sun","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02093","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02093","url":null,"abstract":"The heat transfer of drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir is the main cause of reservoir hydrate decomposition and borehole wall instability. Impeding or retarding heat transfer from drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir is key to maintaining reservoir hydrate stability. In order to intelligently control the temperature of the drilling fluid in the wellbore, phase change microcapsules were prepared using an innovative method of electrostatic spraying and physical cross-linking with mixed alkane as the core material and sodium alginate as the shell material. This synthesis method can control the particle size of phase change microcapsules. The phase change microcapsules were characterized by SEM, optical microscopy, and particle size analyzer. The experimental results presented that the latent heat of melting of the phase change material is 158.04 J/g, and the latent heat of solidification is 161.63 J/g. In addition, the microcapsules also have excellent thermal stability, and the thermal conductivity coefficient is 0.384 W/(m·°C). The results of the hydrate decomposition experiment show that the phase change microcapsules can effectively delay the decomposition of hydrates. These results provide valuable insights into a better understanding of the rational development of high-performance hydrate decomposition inhibitors for drilling fluids and the construction of drilling fluid systems.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-08","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576747","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
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Energy & Fuels
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