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Integrating Local Knowledge on Cactus Pear from Brazilian Northeastern Communities for Culturally Responsive Chemistry Teaching 整合巴西东北部社区关于仙人掌梨的当地知识,开展文化响应型化学教学
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00463
Jacqueline Pereira Gomes, Mikeas Silva de Lima, Francisco Ferreira Dantas Filho
This article presents the implementation of instructional activities that integrate local knowledge regarding the use of cactus pear by rural communities in the Brazilian northeast, within a Culturally Responsive Science Teaching framework. The activities aimed to engage students in meaningful learning of concepts related to saponification while also highlighting the symbolic significance of cactus pear in sustaining the economic livelihood of families in the region. Drawing insights from a rural community engaged in cactus pear cultivation, the initiative was structured into three parts: interdisciplinary discussions, experimental activities, and modeling exercises. The activities effectively achieved educational objectives and fostered an appreciation for the cultural significance of the cactus pear within a local context. Student feedback highlighted the positive impact of the instructions on their learning experience, with the majority demonstrating a solid understanding of the saponification reaction and cleaning action of soap. The activities aligned with the Culturally Responsive Science Teaching model by integrating diverse content, facilitating knowledge construction, promoting prejudice reduction and social justice, and fostering academic development.
本文介绍了在 "文化响应式科学教学 "框架内,如何结合巴西东北部农村社区使用仙人掌梨的当地知识开展教学活动。这些活动旨在让学生有意义地学习与皂化有关的概念,同时强调仙人掌梨在维持该地区家庭经济生计方面的象征意义。该活动借鉴了从事仙人掌梨种植的农村社区的经验,分为三个部分:跨学科讨论、实验活动和建模练习。这些活动有效地实现了教育目标,并在当地背景下培养了对仙人掌梨文化意义的认识。学生的反馈意见强调了指导对他们学习体验的积极影响,大多数学生对肥皂的皂化反应和清洁作用有了扎实的了解。这些活动通过整合不同的内容、促进知识建构、减少偏见和社会公正以及促进学术发展,与文化敏感性科学教学模式相一致。
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引用次数: 0
A Confirmatory and Multigroup Invariance Analysis of the Indonesian Version of the High School Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale: Gender and Grade Level Overview 印尼版高中化学自我效能感量表的确认和多组不变量分析:性别和年级概述
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.3c01332
Andrian Saputra, Lisa Tania, Sunyono Sunyono, Nor Hasniza Ibrahim, Johari Surif
Affective measurement tools cannot be uniformly applied across different cultural populations without establishing construct validation and equivalence through cross-cultural studies. This research aims to analyze the cross-cultural validity of the measurement and structural model of the high school chemistry self-efficacy (Aydın et al. Educ. Psychol.Meas., 2009, 69(5), 868–880) questionnaire using Indonesian high school students as sample data sets through confirmatory factor analysis. The impact of differences in gender and grade level (grades 10–12) on chemistry self-efficacy in students was also investigated using structured means modeling after a set of invariance tests. A total of 785 respondents (328 males and 457 females) from six high schools in Lampung province, Indonesia, were selected by using stratified random sampling. The confirmatory analysis indicated the best fit for all empirical models toward data sets with high construct validity, internal consistency, and scale stability. Moreover, gender and grade level significantly influenced chemistry self-efficacy, favoring females and the highest-grade students, respectively. However, moving to a higher grade level does not necessarily enhance self-efficacy in students each year, although it does eventually. Probable moderating factors related to gender and grade levels are also discussed.
如果不通过跨文化研究建立建构验证和等效性,情感测量工具就无法在不同文化人群中统一应用。本研究旨在以印尼高中学生为样本数据集,通过确认性因子分析,分析高中化学自我效能感(Aydın et al. Educ. Psychol.Meas., 2009, 69(5), 868-880)问卷的测量和结构模型的跨文化有效性。在进行了一系列不变量检验后,还采用结构化手段建模的方法研究了性别和年级(10-12 年级)差异对学生化学自我效能感的影响。研究采用分层随机抽样的方法,从印度尼西亚楠榜省的六所高中共抽取了 785 名受访者(328 名男生和 457 名女生)。确认性分析表明,所有经验模型都与数据集最匹配,具有较高的建构效度、内部一致性和量表稳定性。此外,性别和年级对化学自我效能感有显著影响,女性和年级最高的学生对化学自我效能感更有利。然而,升入高年级并不一定每年都能提高学生的自我效能感,尽管最终会提高。本文还讨论了与性别和年级有关的可能的调节因素。
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引用次数: 0
A Simple, Safe, and Easy Demonstration of the Reaction between Sodium Peroxide and Water 过氧化钠与水反应的简单、安全和轻松演示
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00375
Min Han, Jiaxin Zhang, Yiping Wang, Yan Hu, Ronghui Que
A simple, safe, and easy demonstration of the reaction of sodium peroxide with water is presented. The reaction is performed in a plastic bottle by adding water to sodium peroxide supported in a rubber “thimble”; oxygen is detected by the reignition of a glowing splint, while the generation of sodium hydroxide is indicated by phenolphthalein. The exothermicity of the reaction is evident from the melting of the rubber “thimble”. The apparatus is easy to assemble, and small amounts of chemicals are required. The reaction is safely contained, and its physical and chemical products are readily observed.
演示过氧化钠与水反应的方法简单、安全、易行。反应是在一个塑料瓶中进行的,将水加到支撑在橡胶 "顶针 "中的过氧化钠中;通过发光夹板的复燃来检测氧气,而氢氧化钠的生成则通过酚酞来显示。从橡胶 "顶针 "的熔化可以看出反应的放热性。该装置易于组装,只需少量化学品。反应被安全地控制住,其物理和化学产物也很容易观察到。
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引用次数: 0
Calculation of the Characteristic X-ray Lines with Slater’s Rules for a Better Understanding of Quantum Transition and Moseley’s Law 利用斯莱特规则计算特征 X 射线,更好地理解量子转变和莫斯利定律
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00396
Ruifeng Zhou
This study aims to give chemistry students a deeper understanding of electron shielding and quantum transitions by interpreting the characteristic X-ray lines. There is a popular misunderstanding among learners and even teachers in which an outer-shell electron fills a vacancy in the inner shell, releasing some of its energy as an X-ray photon. However, this picture gives an unsatisfactory prediction of characteristic X-ray lines. In fact, electron transition is a collective process. During the transition of one electron, the states of all of the electrons in the system change together due to the change in shielding between the electrons. By using the effective nuclear charges calculated with Slater’s rules, formulas for Kα lines are derived, which fit experimental data very well. The formulas are also compared to Moseley’s law to explain its success and limitations. The introduction of the ideas and methods and the students’ research projects significantly improve the understanding of the concepts related to atomic structure, quantum states, and quantum transition and the students’ problem-solving skills.
本研究旨在通过解读特征 X 射线,加深化学学生对电子屏蔽和量子跃迁的理解。在学生甚至教师中流行着一种误解,即外层电子填补了内层的空位,释放出部分能量作为 X 射线光子。然而,这种说法对特征 X 射线的预测并不令人满意。事实上,电子跃迁是一个集体过程。在一个电子的跃迁过程中,由于电子间屏蔽的变化,系统中所有电子的状态都会发生改变。通过使用斯莱特规则计算出的有效核电荷,得出了 Kα 线的公式,这些公式与实验数据非常吻合。这些公式还与莫斯利定律进行了比较,以解释其成功之处和局限性。通过思想和方法的介绍以及学生的研究项目,大大提高了学生对原子结构、量子态和量子转变相关概念的理解和解决问题的能力。
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引用次数: 0
Relating Bond Orders and Bond Energies to Ionization Energies and Electron Affinities: A Quantitative Approach 将键序和键能与电离能和电子亲和力联系起来:定量方法
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00201
John S. Hutchinson, Lesa Tran Lu, Kristi Kincaid
In General Chemistry, students are often asked to predict changes in bond energy based on changes in bond order when electrons are either added to or removed from a molecule. This gives a qualitative understanding of the correlation between bond order and bond energy, but it is not descriptive of the actual changes in the bond energies involved. In this paper, we present a quantitative approach to this prediction based on ionization energy, electron affinity, and conservation of energy (or Hess’ law). These are all concepts that are familiar to General Chemistry students. With this quantitative approach, we can more fully illustrate how bonding and antibonding electrons contribute to bond strength and better relate these to ionization energies and electron affinities. Multiple examples are given to illustrate a range of possibilities and to compare variations of bond energies.
在普通化学课中,学生经常被要求根据分子中电子增减时键序的变化来预测键能的变 化。这让学生对键序和键能之间的相关性有了定性的了解,但并不能描述相关键能的实际变化。在本文中,我们提出了一种基于电离能、电子亲和力和能量守恒(或赫斯定律)的定量预测方法。这些都是普通化学学生所熟悉的概念。有了这种定量方法,我们就能更充分地说明成键电子和反键电子对键强度的贡献,并更好地将它们与电离能和电子亲和力联系起来。我们还给出了多个例子来说明各种可能性,并对键能的变化进行比较。
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引用次数: 0
Use of a One-Page Reference Guide in On-Campus Timed Exams: Reflections and Assessment of Its Impact on Students in a Post-Open-Book World 在校内定时考试中使用单页参考指南:后开卷世界中对学生影响的思考与评估
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00472
Lorraine T. Gibson van Mil, Gan Shermer, Patrick I. T. Thomson
Like most higher education institutions in the U.K., the Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry at the University of Strathclyde and the Department of Chemistry at the University of Bath adopted online open-book assessment during the COVID-19 pandemic, before returning to on-campus hall-based exams several years later. Recognizing the potential for issues caused by a lack of student familiarity with closed-book exam techniques, we adopted a limited form of open-book support, inviting students to prepare a single page of notes to bring into each exam. The impact of this open-note support on student anxiety and preparation was investigated through a mixed-methods survey. We observed a marked reduction in reported anxiety, and students also reported widespread uptake of more effective study habits, using the freedom from memorization to prioritise higher-order cognitive tasks.
与英国大多数高等教育机构一样,斯特拉思克莱德大学(University of Strathclyde)的纯化学与应用化学系(Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry)和巴斯大学(University of Bath)的化学系(Department of Chemistry)在 COVID-19 大流行期间采用了在线开卷考试,几年后又恢复了校内考试。由于认识到学生对闭卷考试技巧的不熟悉可能会造成问题,我们采用了有限的开卷支持形式,请学生准备一页笔记,带入每次考试。我们通过混合方法调查研究了这种开放式笔记支持对学生焦虑和备考的影响。我们发现,学生的焦虑感明显减轻,而且他们普遍养成了更有效的学习习惯,不再死记硬背,而是优先考虑高阶认知任务。
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引用次数: 0
Learning Assistants and Instructors Provide Social Support That Influences Student Engagement Differently in Undergraduate Active Learning Chemistry Courses 在本科生主动学习化学课程中,学习助理和教师提供的社会支持对学生参与度的影响不同
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.3c01137
Krista Donis, Melissa L. Aikens, Uma Swamy, Milagros Delgado, Megan Gillespie, Palmer Graves, Sarah L. Eddy
Active learning commonly involves students engaging with course material in small groups during class time. The quality of this engagement may be key for students to reap the benefits of active learning. Social support theory suggests that supports from key classroom personnel like instructors and learning assistants (LAs) could positively influence student engagement in in-class activities. We explored the influence of social support across multiple sections of general chemistry courses taught in two modalities: in-person and remote synchronous. We found that students perceived that LAs and instructors both provide high levels of support for active learning in general chemistry courses. However, the influence of support on engagement varied by both who was providing it and the type of support being provided. Instructors’ provisioning of informational support significantly affected student engagement in active learning regardless of course context (in-person and remote synchronous). In contrast, LAs provisioning of appraisal and emotional support impacted student engagement, though the importance of each of these supports from LAs depended on course context. Overall, we found social support can influence student in-class engagement and course context greatly influenced the relationship between the provided social support and student engagement.
主动学习通常是指学生在课堂上以小组形式参与课程材料的学习。这种参与的质量可能是学生从主动学习中获益的关键。社会支持理论认为,教师和学习助理(LA)等关键课堂人员的支持会对学生参与课堂活动产生积极影响。我们探讨了社会支持对多节普通化学课程的影响,这些课程采用两种教学模式:面对面教学和远程同步教学。我们发现,在普通化学课程中,学生认为辅导员和教师都能为学生的主动学习提供高水平的支持。然而,支持对参与度的影响因提供支持的人和支持的类型而异。无论课程环境如何(面对面和远程同步),教师提供的信息支持都会对学生参与主动学习产生重大影响。相比之下,法律顾问提供的评价和情感支持会影响学生的参与度,但法律顾问提供的这些支持的重要性取决于课程背景。总之,我们发现社会支持可以影响学生的课堂参与度,而课程情境在很大程度上影响着所提供的社会支持与学生参与度之间的关系。
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引用次数: 0
Introducing Graduate Employability Skills to Year 1 Chemistry Students: Reflecting Upon Impact 向一年级化学学生介绍毕业生就业技能:反思影响
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.3c01287
Lorraine Gibson van Mil, Egizia De Pascale, Patrick I. T. Thomson, Sarah Walker, Fraser J. Scott
Employability skills training is an important aspect of undergraduate chemistry degrees to ensure good graduate outcomes for students. In response to changes in the employability skills literature and to maintain good graduate outcomes, we redeveloped our Year 1 curriculum to include a dedicated graduate employability skills training (GEST) set of activities. They were designed and created to invoke transformative approaches to learning, peer group working and self-reflection on developing graduate attributes and employability skills. Our assessment of the effectiveness of the GEST focused on year 1 students’ perceptions of engagement and relevance of the bespoke training compared to the rest of their curriculum in developing the target skills. In general, it was shown that the dedicated GEST was well received for students self-identifying as a woman (including transgender woman), mature students, students from a low socioeconomic background, and students without a graduate parent or guardian; in all cases students recognized opportunities for a range of skills development. This contrasted with student cohorts who self-identified as a man (including transgender man), students with reasonable or significant work experience and students with a graduate parent or guardian who perceived no-little skills development as a result of engagement with GEST compared to the rest of the curriculum. Recommendations include better communication to articulate skill development opportunities in dedicated employability focused activities and across theory and practical modules in the curriculum, and to perhaps create dedicated employability activities for students who have less employability experiences, less science capital, or those who come from a low socioeconomic background.
就业技能培训是化学本科学位的一个重要方面,可确保学生取得良好的毕业成果。为了应对就业技能文献的变化,并保持良好的毕业生成果,我们重新开发了一年级课程,包括一套专门的毕业生就业技能培训(GEST)活动。这些活动的设计和创建旨在采用变革性的学习方法、同伴小组合作和自我反思来培养毕业生的特质和就业技能。我们对 GEST 效果的评估主要集中在一年级学生对定制培训的参与度和相关性的看法上,并与他们在培养目标技能方面的其他课程进行了比较。总体而言,对于自我认同为女性(包括变性女性)的学生、成熟期学生、社会经济背景较差的学生以及没有毕业父母或监护人的学生来说,专门的 GEST 受到了欢迎;在所有情况下,学生都认识到有机会发展一系列技能。与此形成鲜明对比的是,自我认同为男性(包括变性男性)的学生群体、有合理或重要工作经验的学生以及父母或监护人为研究生的学生,他们认为与其他课程相比,参与 GEST 课程没有带来多少技能发展。建议包括加强沟通,在专门的以就业能力为重点的活动中以及在课程的理论和实践模块中阐明技能发展机会,或许还可以为就业能力经验较少、科学资本较少或社会经济背景较差的学生创建专门的就业能力活动。
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引用次数: 0
Toward a Model of Cognition for UV/Vis Spectroscopy 建立紫外/可见光谱认知模型
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00120
Haiyan Al Fulaiti, Amelie Cole, Morgan Balabanoff, Alena Moon
Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy is widely used in undergraduate chemistry. Despite its ubiquitous use, very little research has been conducted on how students develop understanding or competency with this spectroscopic tool. To begin addressing this gap, we present results from an exploratory cross-sectional qualitative investigation of how postsecondary chemistry students reason about UV/vis spectroscopy. We used a phenomenographic construct modeling approach to characterize different ways learners experience the phenomenon of UV/vis spectroscopy. We have organized these various ways hierarchically according to sophistication. These levels were distinct from each other based on how students explained light interacting with molecules to give rise to spectral peaks. The lowest level reasoning showed that students link spectral peaks to individual atoms within molecules. In contrast, the highest level of understanding offered a mechanism of how light specifically interacts with molecules to give rise to spectral peaks by activating resources about specific electronic transitions. These results provide a starting point for a working model of students’ reasoning. We view this as a developmental model to show how students can progress from atom-level information to offering a mechanistic explanation of how light interacts with molecules, which can translate to other light–matter interaction-based phenomena.
紫外可见光谱法在本科生化学学习中应用广泛。尽管其应用无处不在,但关于学生如何理解或掌握这一光谱工具的研究却很少。为了填补这一空白,我们对中学后化学学生如何理解紫外/可见光谱进行了横断面定性探索性研究,并展示了研究结果。我们采用了现象学建构模型的方法来描述学习者体验紫外/可见光谱现象的不同方式。我们根据复杂程度对这些不同的方式进行了分级。根据学生对光与分子相互作用产生光谱峰的解释,这些层次彼此不同。最低层次的推理显示,学生将光谱峰与分子中的单个原子联系起来。相比之下,最高级别的理解则提供了一种机制,说明光如何通过激活特定电子跃迁的资源,与分子发生特定的相互作用,从而产生光谱峰。这些结果为学生的推理工作模型提供了一个起点。我们将其视为一个发展模型,展示学生如何从原子层面的信息发展到提供光与分子相互作用的机理解释,进而转化为其他基于光-物质相互作用的现象。
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引用次数: 0
Implementing an Environmental Contaminants Deliberation Module in General Chemistry 在《普通化学》中实施环境污染物审议模块
IF 3 3区 教育学 Q2 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.4c00273
Sara A. Mehltretter Drury, Katherine R. Knobloch, Pamela Conners, Amanda Nienow, Chris Anderson, Sidra Aghababian, Jessica Imholte, Laura M. Wysocki
Placing chemistry in the context of complex societal issues is one way to help students see the application of fundamental ideas in the general chemistry curriculum. Here, we describe the impact of an in-class deliberation on environmental contaminants, which encourages students to consider different perspectives when addressing the issue of water and soil quality in communities. Student surveys were used to analyze the quality of the deliberation and several key factors regarding student attitudes before and after the activity. Students report a high-quality experience during the deliberation, wherein new ideas were introduced and they carefully considered different views on the issue at hand. Not only do students gain scientific knowledge about lead contamination, they also demonstrate statistically significant gains in their attitudes toward chemistry and their motivation to take action. As a complement to traditional teaching methods, this deliberation module can address key learning outcomes in systems thinking and the impact chemistry has on society.
将化学置于复杂的社会问题背景中,是帮助学生理解普通化学课程中基本思想的应用的一种方法。在此,我们描述了关于环境污染物的课内讨论的影响,该讨论鼓励学生在解决社区的水和土壤质量问题时考虑不同的观点。我们通过学生调查分析了讨论的质量以及活动前后学生态度的几个关键因素。学生们表示在讨论过程中获得了高质量的体验,引入了新的想法,并认真思考了关于当前问题的不同观点。学生们不仅获得了有关铅污染的科学知识,他们对化学的态度和采取行动的积极性也有了统计学意义上的显著提高。作为传统教学方法的补充,该审议模块可以解决系统思考和化学对社会影响方面的关键学习成果。
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引用次数: 0
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Journal of Chemical Education
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