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Covalent Organic Frameworks Meet Titanium Oxide. 共价有机框架与氧化钛相遇。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-19 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c06845
Rui Xue, Yinsheng Liu, Xueyan Wu, Yan Lv, Jixi Guo, Guo-Yu Yang

In order to expand the applicability of materials and improve their performance, the combined use of different materials has increasingly been explored. Among these materials, inorganic-organic hybrid materials often exhibit properties superior to those of single materials. Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are famous crystalline porous materials constructed by organic building blocks linked by covalent bonds. In recent years, the combination of COFs with other materials has shown interesting properties in diverse fields, and the composite materials of COFs and TiO2 have been investigated more and more. These two outstanding materials are combined through covalent bonding, physical mixing, and other methods and exhibit excellent performance in various fields, including photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, sensors, separation, and energy storage and conversion. In this Review, the current preparation methods and applications of COF-TiO2 hybrid materials are introduced in detail, and their future development and possible problems are discussed and prospected, which is of great significance for related research. It is believed that these interesting hybrid materials will show greater application value as research progresses.

为了扩大材料的应用范围并提高其性能,人们越来越多地探索不同材料的组合使用。在这些材料中,无机-有机杂化材料往往表现出优于单一材料的性能。共价有机框架(COFs)是一种著名的多孔结晶材料,由共价键连接的有机构件构成。近年来,COFs 与其他材料的结合在不同领域显示出有趣的特性,COFs 与 TiO2 复合材料的研究也越来越多。这两种优秀的材料通过共价键、物理混合等方法结合在一起,在光催化、电催化、传感器、分离、能量存储与转换等多个领域表现出优异的性能。本综述详细介绍了目前 COF-TiO2 杂化材料的制备方法和应用,并对其未来发展和可能存在的问题进行了探讨和展望,对相关研究具有重要意义。相信随着研究的深入,这些有趣的杂化材料将展现出更大的应用价值。
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引用次数: 0
Portable Near-Infrared to Near-Infrared Platform for Homogeneous Quantification of Biomarkers in Complex Biological Samples. 用于复杂生物样本中生物标记物均匀定量的便携式近红外至近红外平台。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-19 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c05280
Yantao Li, Xiaorui Mai, Wenming Liu, Feng Wang, Shuo Yan, Yu Lei, Lu Chen, Weikang Mai, Qingwei Song, Weidong Du, Xukai Chen, Huiru Ye, Longfei Song, Yu Chen, Lei Zhao, Zhenwei Liu, Weidong Ding, Pei Yu, Xue Jiang, Yuyi Li, Jing Huang, Qiuqiang Zhan, Yiru Qin, Chenzhong Li, Wei Wei, Tianxing Ji

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based homogeneous immunoassay obviates tedious washing steps and thus is a promising approach for immunoassays. However, a conventional FRET-based homogeneous immunoassay operating in the visible region is not able to overcome the interference of complex biological samples, thus resulting in insufficient detection sensitivity and poor accuracy. Here, we develop a near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR FRET platform (Ex = 808 nm, Em = 980 nm) that enables background-free high-throughput homogeneous quantification of various biomarkers in complex biological samples. This NIR-to-NIR FRET platform is portable and easy to operate and is mainly composed of a high-performance NIR-to-NIR FRET pair based on lanthanide-doped nanoparticles (LnNPs) and a custom-made microplate reader for readout of NIR luminescence signals. We demonstrate that this NIR-to-NIR FRET platform is versatile and robust, capable of realizing highly sensitive and accurate detection of various critical biomarkers, including small molecules (morphine and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D), proteins (human chorionic gonadotropin), and viral particles (adenovirus) in unprocessed complex biological samples (urine, whole blood, and feces) within 5-10 min. We expect this NIR-to-NIR FRET platform to provide low-cost healthcare for populations living in resource-limited areas and be widely used in many other fields, such as food safety and environmental monitoring.

基于佛斯特共振能量转移(FRET)的均相免疫测定避免了繁琐的洗涤步骤,因此是一种前景广阔的免疫测定方法。然而,传统的基于 FRET 的均相免疫分析法在可见光区域工作时,无法克服复杂生物样品的干扰,从而导致检测灵敏度不够、准确性差。在此,我们开发了一种近红外-近红外 FRET 平台(Ex = 808 nm,Em = 980 nm),可对复杂生物样品中的各种生物标记物进行无背景高通量均相定量分析。该近红外-近红外 FRET 平台携带方便、操作简单,主要由一个基于掺杂镧系元素纳米粒子(LnNPs)的高性能近红外-近红外 FRET 对和一个用于读取近红外发光信号的定制微孔板阅读器组成。我们证明了这一近红外-近红外荧光对射平台的多功能性和稳健性,能够在 5-10 分钟内实现对各种关键生物标记物的高灵敏度和精确检测,包括未经处理的复杂生物样本(尿液、全血和粪便)中的小分子(吗啡和 1,25-二羟维生素 D)、蛋白质(人绒毛膜促性腺激素)和病毒颗粒(腺病毒)。我们希望这个近红外-近红外 FRET 平台能为生活在资源有限地区的人们提供低成本的医疗保健服务,并能广泛应用于食品安全和环境监测等许多其他领域。
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引用次数: 0
Nanofluidic Ionic Memristors. 纳米流体离子膜晶体管。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-18 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c06467
Guoheng Xu, Miliang Zhang, Tingting Mei, Wenchao Liu, Li Wang, Kai Xiao

Living organisms use ions and small molecules as information carriers to communicate with the external environment at ultralow power consumption. Inspired by biological systems, artificial ion-based devices have emerged in recent years to try to realize efficient information-processing paradigms. Nanofluidic ionic memristors, memory resistors based on confined fluidic systems whose internal ionic conductance states depend on the historical voltage, have attracted broad attention and are used as neuromorphic devices for computing. Despite their high exposure, nanofluidic ionic memristors are still in the initial stage. Therefore, systematic guidance for developing and reasonably designing ionic memristors is necessary. This review systematically summarizes the history, mechanisms, and potential applications of nanofluidic ionic memristors. The essential challenges in the field and the outlook for the future potential applications of nanofluidic ionic memristors are also discussed.

生物体利用离子和小分子作为信息载体,以超低功耗与外部环境进行交流。受生物系统的启发,近年来出现了以人工离子为基础的设备,试图实现高效的信息处理模式。纳米流体离子忆阻器是一种基于封闭流体系统的忆阻器,其内部离子电导状态取决于历史电压。尽管纳米流体离子忆阻器的曝光率很高,但它仍处于起步阶段。因此,有必要系统地指导离子忆阻器的开发和合理设计。本综述系统地总结了纳米流体离子忆阻器的历史、机理和潜在应用。此外,还讨论了纳米流体离子忆阻器在该领域面临的基本挑战和未来潜在应用前景。
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引用次数: 0
Correction to "Integrating Bacteria with a Ternary Combination of Photosensitizers for Monochromatic Irradiation-Mediated Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Synergistic Photothermal Therapy". 更正 "将细菌与光敏剂三元组合用于单色辐照-光声成像引导的协同光热疗法"。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-18 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c08131
Haiyan Guo, Zhenping Cao, Juanjuan Li, Zhenzhen Fu, Sisi Lin, Lu Wang, Jinyao Liu
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引用次数: 0
Epitaxial Metal-Organic Framework-Mediated Electron Relay for H2 Detection on Demand. 外延金属有机框架介导的电子中继,用于按需检测 H2。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-18 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c05206
Sailin Yuan, Shicheng Zeng, Yan Hu, Weixin Kong, Huanjing Yang, Peng Gong, Taishi Xiao, Huadong Wang, Hengcheng Wan, Qiaowei Li, Zhengzong Sun

Hydrogen is regarded as one of the most promising clean substitutes for fossil fuels toward a carbon-zero society. However, the safety management of the upcoming hydrogen energy infrastructure has not been fully prepared, in contrast to the well-established natural gas and gasoline systems. On the frontline is the guard post of hydrogen detectors, which need to be deployed on various structural surfaces and environmental conditions. Conventional hydrogen detectors are usually bulky and environmentally sensitive, limiting their flexible and conformal deployment to various locations, such as pipelines and valves. Herein, we demonstrate the successful synthesis of a palladium-modified epitaxial metal-organic framework (MOF) on single-layer graphene to fabricate a heterostructure material (Epi-MOF-Pd). Device based on the heterostructure demonstrates high sensitivity toward low- concentration H2 (155% resistance response to 1% H2 within 12 s, a theoretical detection limit of 3 ppm). The 25 nm epitaxial MOF acquires electrons from the Pd nanoparticles after the trace amount of H2 is chemically adsorbed and further relays the electrons to the highly conductive graphene. The Epi-MOF-Pd is both flexible and enduring, and maintains stable detection over 10 000 bending cycles. Through photolithography, device arrays with a density of 3000 units/cm2 are successfully fabricated. This versatile material provides a prospective avenue for the mass production of high-performance chemical-sensitive electronics, which could significantly improve the hydrogen safety management on demand.

氢气被认为是最有希望替代化石燃料,实现零碳社会的清洁能源之一。然而,与成熟的天然气和汽油系统相比,即将到来的氢能源基础设施的安全管理尚未做好充分准备。前沿阵地是氢气探测器的岗哨,这些探测器需要部署在不同的结构表面和环境条件下。传统的氢气检测器通常体积庞大且对环境敏感,这限制了其在管道和阀门等不同位置的灵活适形部署。在此,我们展示了在单层石墨烯上成功合成钯修饰的外延金属有机框架(MOF),从而制造出一种异质结构材料(Epi-MOF-Pd)。基于该异质结构的器件对低浓度 H2 具有高灵敏度(12 秒内对 1% H2 的电阻响应为 155%,理论检测限为 3 ppm)。微量的 H2 被化学吸附后,25 nm 磊晶 MOF 从 Pd 纳米粒子中获得电子,并进一步将电子传递给高导电性石墨烯。Epi-MOF-Pd 既灵活又耐用,可在 10 000 次弯曲周期内保持稳定的检测性能。通过光刻技术,成功制造出密度为 3000 单位/平方厘米的器件阵列。这种多功能材料为大规模生产高性能化学敏感电子元件提供了前景广阔的途径,可显著改善氢气安全的按需管理。
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引用次数: 0
Designing Fast-Moving Antibacterial Microtorpedoes to Treat Lethal Bacterial Biofilm Infections. 设计快速移动的抗菌微鱼雷,治疗致命的细菌生物膜感染。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-18 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c04995
Liyan Zhao, Wanlin Li, Yue Liu, Yuchen Qi, Ning An, Mi Yan, Zuankai Wang, Min Zhou, Shikuan Yang

Engineering fast-moving microrobot swarms that can physically disassemble bacterial biofilms and kill the bacteria released from the biofilms is a promising way to combat bacterial biofilm infections. Here, we report electrochemical design of Ag7O8NO3 microtorpedoes with outstanding antibacterial performance and meanwhile capable of moving at speeds of hundreds of body lengths per second in clinically used H2O2 aqueous solutions. These fast-moving antibacterial Ag7O8NO3 microtorpedoes could penetrate into and disintegrate the bacterial biofilms and, in turn, kill the bacteria released from the biofilms. Based on the understanding of the growth behavior of the microtorpedoes, we could fine-tune the morphology of the microtorpedoes to accelerate the moving speed and increase their penetration depth into the biofilms simply via controlling the potential waveforms. We further developed an automatic shaking method to selectively peel off the uniformly structured microtorpedoes from the electrode surface, realizing continuous electrochemical production of the microtorpedoes. Animal experiments proved that the microtorpedo swarms greatly increased the survival rate of the mice infected by lethal biofilms to >90%. We used the electrochemical method to design and massively produce uniformly structured fast-moving antibacterial microtorpedo swarms with application potentials in treatment of lethal bacterial biofilm infections.

快速移动的微机器人群能够物理分解细菌生物膜并杀死从生物膜中释放出来的细菌,这是一种很有前景的抗击细菌生物膜感染的方法。在此,我们报告了 Ag7O8NO3 微鱼雷的电化学设计,这种微鱼雷具有出色的抗菌性能,同时能够在临床使用的 H2O2 水溶液中以每秒数百个体长的速度移动。这些快速移动的抗菌 Ag7O8NO3 微鱼雷可以穿透并瓦解细菌生物膜,进而杀死从生物膜中释放出来的细菌。基于对微鱼雷生长行为的了解,我们可以对微鱼雷的形态进行微调,只需通过控制电位波形就能加快微鱼雷的移动速度并增加其对生物膜的穿透深度。我们还开发了一种自动摇动方法,可以选择性地从电极表面剥离结构均匀的微鱼雷,实现了微鱼雷的连续电化学生产。动物实验证明,微鱼雷群使感染致命生物膜的小鼠存活率大大提高,达到 90% 以上。我们利用电化学方法设计并大量生产了结构均匀、快速移动的抗菌微鱼雷群,它们在治疗致命性细菌生物膜感染方面具有应用潜力。
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引用次数: 0
Multifunctional Nanotherapeutics with Long-Acting Release against Macular Degeneration by Minimally Invasive Administration. 通过微创给药长效释放的多功能纳米疗法防治黄斑变性。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c04494
Wanwan Chang, Xinying Lv, Jiafei Zhu, Jing-Jing Shen, Jing Yao, Zhuang Liu, Qian Chen

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness, requires frequent intravitreal injection of antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF), which could generate a succession of complications with poor patient compliance. The current VEGF-targeting therapies often fail in half of patients due to the complex pathologic microenvironment of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and increased levels of inflammation are accompanied by choroidal neovascularization (CNV). We herein reported multifunctional nanotherapeutics featuring superior antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties that aim to reverse the pathological condition, alongside its strong targeted antiangiogenesis to CNV and its ability to provide long-term sustained bioactive delivery via the minimally invasive subconjunctival injection, so as to achieve satisfactory wet AMD treatment effects. Concretely, the nanomedicine was designed by coencapsulation of astaxanthin (AST), a red pigmented carotenoid known for its antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties, and axitinib (AXI), a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively targets the vascular epidermal growth factor receptor for antiangiogenesis, into the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), which forms the nanodrug of PLGA@AST/AXI. Our results demonstrated that a single-dose subconjunctival administration of PLGA@AST/AXI showed a rational synergistic effect by targeting various prevailing risk factors associated with wet AMD, ensuring persistent drug release profiles, maintaining good ocular biocompatibility, and causing no obvious mechanical damage. Such attributes are vital and hold significant potential in treating ocular posterior segment diseases. Moreover, this nanotherapeutic strategy represents a versatile and broad-spectrum nanoplatform, offering a promising alternative for the complex pathological progression of other neovascular diseases.

新生血管性老年性黄斑变性(AMD)是导致失明的主要原因之一,需要经常在玻璃体内注射抗血管内皮生长因子(anti-VEGF),这可能会产生一系列并发症,而且患者的依从性很差。由于病理微环境复杂,活性氧(ROS)产生过多,炎症水平升高又伴随着脉络膜新生血管(CNV),目前的血管内皮生长因子靶向疗法往往有半数患者失败。我们在此报告的多功能纳米治疗药物具有卓越的抗氧化和抗炎特性,可逆转病理状态,同时还具有很强的抗CNV血管生成的靶向性,并能通过微创结膜下注射提供长期持续的生物活性递送,从而达到令人满意的湿性AMD治疗效果。具体来说,这种纳米药物是通过将虾青素(AST)(一种红色色素类胡萝卜素,具有抗氧化、抗炎和抗细胞凋亡的特性)和阿西替尼(AXI)(一种小分子酪氨酸蛋白酶)进行共包封而设计的、AXI是一种选择性靶向血管表皮生长因子受体以抗血管生成的小分子酪氨酸激酶抑制剂。我们的研究结果表明,PLGA@AAST/AXI 的单剂量结膜下给药具有合理的协同效应,可针对与湿性老年性黄斑变性相关的各种普遍风险因素,确保持久的药物释放曲线,保持良好的眼部生物相容性,并且不会造成明显的机械损伤。这些特性对于治疗眼后节疾病至关重要,并具有巨大潜力。此外,这种纳米治疗策略代表了一种多功能、广谱的纳米平台,为其他新生血管疾病的复杂病理进展提供了一种有前途的替代方案。
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引用次数: 0
Laser-Induced Stress-Driven Nanoplate Jumping Visualized by Ultrafast Electron Microscopy. 通过超快电子显微镜观察激光应力驱动的纳米板跃迁。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c05717
Yu Zhou, Yenan Meng, Guohu Luo, Bin Chen, Dongping Zhong, Yongxiang Hu

Understanding laser-induced jumping has attracted great interest in nanomaterial launching and transfer but requires a high spatiotemporal resolution visualization. Here, we report a jumping dynamics of nanoplate driven by ultrafast laser-induced stress using time-resolved transmission electron microscopy. Single-shot imaging reveals a nondestructive launching of gold nanoplates in several nanoseconds after the pulsed femtosecond laser excitation. The temperature rise and acoustic vibration, derived from ultrafast electron crystallography with a picosecond time resolution, confirm the existence of a laser-induced elastic stress wave. The generation, propagation, and reflection of thermal stress waves are further clarified by atomic simulation. The nonequilibrium ultrafast laser heating produces a compressive stress wave within several picoseconds, constrained by the supporting substrate under nanoplate to provide thrust force. This compressive stress is subsequently reflected into tensile stress by the substrate, promoting the nanoplate to jump off the substrate. Furthermore, the uneven interface adhesion results in the jumping flip of nanoplates, as well as, diminished their jumping speed. This study unveils the jumping regime driven by impulsive laser-excited stress and offers understanding of light-matter interaction.

了解激光诱导的跃迁在纳米材料的发射和转移方面引起了极大的兴趣,但这需要高时空分辨率的可视化。在此,我们利用时间分辨透射电子显微镜报告了超快激光诱导应力驱动的纳米板跃迁动力学。单次成像显示,在脉冲飞秒激光激发后的几纳秒内,金纳米板发生了无损发射。从皮秒时间分辨率的超快电子晶体学得出的温升和声波振动证实了激光诱导弹性应力波的存在。原子模拟进一步阐明了热应力波的产生、传播和反射。非平衡超快激光加热会在几皮秒内产生压应力波,纳米板下的支撑基底会提供推力。这种压应力随后被基底反射为拉应力,促使纳米板跳出基底。此外,不均匀的界面附着力会导致纳米板跳跃翻转,并降低其跳跃速度。这项研究揭示了由脉冲激光激发应力驱动的跃迁机制,并提供了对光-物质相互作用的理解。
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引用次数: 0
Emergence of Band Structure in a Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework upon Hierarchical Self-Assembly. 二维金属有机框架在分层自组装时出现的带状结构。
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c04191
Daniel Baranowski, Marco Thaler, Dominik Brandstetter, Andreas Windischbacher, Iulia Cojocariu, Simone Mearini, Valeria Chesnyak, Luca Schio, Luca Floreano, Carolina Gutiérrez Bolaños, Peter Puschnig, Laerte L Patera, Vitaliy Feyer, Claus M Schneider

Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (2D-MOFs) represent a category of atomically thin materials that combine the structural tunability of molecular systems with the crystalline structure characteristic of solids. The strong bonding between the organic linkers and transition metal centers is expected to result in delocalized electronic states. However, it remains largely unknown how the band structure in 2D-MOFs emerges through the coupling of electronic states in the building blocks. Here, we demonstrate the on-surface synthesis of a 2D-MOF exhibiting prominent π-conjugation. Through a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we provide direct evidence of band structure formation upon hierarchical self-assembly, going from metal-organic complexes to a conjugated two-dimensional framework. Additionally, we identify the robustly dispersive nature of the emerging hybrid states, irrespective of the metallic support type, highlighting the tunability of the band structure through charge transfer from the substrate. Our findings encourage the exploration of band-structure engineering in 2D-MOFs for potential applications in electronics and photonics.

二维金属有机框架(2D-MOFs)是一类原子薄材料,它结合了分子系统的结构可调性和固体的结晶结构特征。有机连接体和过渡金属中心之间的强键作用预计会导致电子态的非局部化。然而,人们在很大程度上仍然不知道二维-MOFs 的带状结构是如何通过构件中电子状态的耦合而形成的。在这里,我们展示了一种二维-MOF 的表面合成,这种二维-MOF 表现出突出的 π-共轭。通过实验和理论相结合的方法,我们直接证明了从金属有机复合物到共轭二维框架的分层自组装过程中形成的带状结构。此外,我们还确定了新出现的混合态的稳健色散性质,与金属支持类型无关,突出了带状结构通过来自基底的电荷转移的可调性。我们的研究结果鼓励人们探索二维-MOFs 的带状结构工程,以开发其在电子学和光子学中的潜在应用。
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引用次数: 0
Mapping Ferroelectric Fields Reveals the Origins of the Coercivity Distribution. 绘制铁电场图揭示矫顽力分布的起源
IF 15.8 1区 材料科学 Q1 CHEMISTRY, MULTIDISCIPLINARY Pub Date : 2024-07-17 DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.4c04526
Ho Leung Chan, Shelby S Fields, Yueyun Chen, Tristan P O'Neill, Megan K Lenox, William A Hubbard, Jon F Ihlefeld, Brian C Regan

Better techniques for imaging ferroelectric polarization would aid the development of new ferroelectrics and the refinement of old ones. Here we show how scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) electron beam-induced current (EBIC) imaging reveals ferroelectric polarization with obvious, simply interpretable contrast. Planar imaging of an entire ferroelectric hafnium zirconium oxide (Hf0.5Zr0.5O2, HZO) capacitor shows an EBIC response that is linearly related to the polarization determined in situ with the positive-up, negative-down (PUND) method. The contrast is easily calibrated in MV/cm. The underlying mechanism is magnification-independent, operating equally well on micrometer-sized devices and individual nanoscale domains. Coercive-field mapping reveals that individual domains are biased "positive" and "negative", as opposed to being "easy" and "hard" to switch. The remanent background E-fields generating this bias can be isolated and mapped. Coupled with STEM's native capabilities for structural identification, STEM EBIC imaging provides a revolutionary tool for characterizing ferroelectric materials and devices.

更好的铁电极化成像技术将有助于新铁电材料的开发和旧铁电材料的改进。在这里,我们展示了扫描透射电子显微镜(STEM)电子束诱导电流(EBIC)成像如何以明显、简单可解释的对比度揭示铁电极化。对整个铁电氧化铪锆(Hf0.5Zr0.5O2,HZO)电容器的平面成像显示,EBIC 响应与采用正上负下(PUND)方法现场确定的极化呈线性关系。对比度很容易以 MV/cm 为单位进行校准。其基本机制与放大倍数无关,在微米级器件和单个纳米级畴上同样有效。胁迫场绘图显示,单个畴偏向 "正 "和 "负",而不是 "易 "和 "难 "切换。产生这种偏置的残余背景电场可以被分离出来并绘制成图。STEM EBIC 成像与 STEM 本身的结构识别能力相结合,为表征铁电材料和器件提供了一种革命性的工具。
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引用次数: 0
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ACS Nano
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