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Threefold enhanced photodegradation of methylene blue using MgO composite with minimum Nd2O3: finding the sweet spot. 使用氧化镁复合材料(含最少的 Nd2O3)将亚甲基蓝的光降解增强三倍:寻找最佳点。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-20 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00614-6
Sathish Kumar Somu, Sri Vanaja Swaminathan, Powrnika Selvakumar, Amrita Pal, Tanay Kundu

Removal of organic dyes like methylene blue (MB) from industrial effluents serves as potential source of potable water. Photocatalytic degradation using sustainable catalyst is deemed to be an affordable solution. In this work, Nd2O3/MgO nanocomposite with different compositions (1, 3, and 5wt% Nd2O3 with MgO) have been achieved using hydrothermal synthesis and characterized extensively. Interestingly, increasing Nd2O3 proportion (1-5%) enhances light absorption, and decreases band gap and electron-hole recombination. The efficacy of the photocatalysts is tested with the degradation of MB dye, through optimizing Nd2O3/MgO proportion, contact time, catalyst dose, and pH. Interestingly, control experiments reveal that 5wt% Nd2O3/MgO achieve 99.6% degradation of MB in 90 min at pH 7, compared to 88.8% with bare MgO under same condition. Kinetic data show that 5wt% Nd2O3/MgO exhibits ca. 3 times higher degradation rate compared to MgO. For the first time, our work enable MgO-based sustainable photocatalyst development with minimum (5 wt%) rare-earth combination to achieve excellent photocatalytic degradation performance.

从工业废水中去除亚甲基蓝(MB)等有机染料是饮用水的潜在来源。使用可持续催化剂进行光催化降解被认为是一种经济实惠的解决方案。在这项工作中,采用水热合成法获得了不同成分(1、3 和 5wt% Nd2O3 与 MgO)的 Nd2O3/MgO 纳米复合材料,并对其进行了广泛表征。有趣的是,增加 Nd2O3 的比例(1%-5%)可增强光吸收,降低带隙和电子-空穴重组。通过优化 Nd2O3/MgO 的比例、接触时间、催化剂剂量和 pH 值,用甲基溴染料的降解测试了光催化剂的功效。有趣的是,对照实验显示,在 pH 值为 7 的条件下,5wt% Nd2O3/MgO 在 90 分钟内对 MB 的降解率达到 99.6%,而在相同条件下,裸氧化镁的降解率为 88.8%。动力学数据显示,5wt% Nd2O3/MgO 的降解率是 MgO 的约 3 倍。我们的研究首次实现了以氧化镁为基础的可持续光催化剂的开发,以最小(5 wt%)的稀土组合实现了卓越的光催化降解性能。
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引用次数: 0
Transcranial photobiomodulation for neurodevelopmental disorders: a narrative review. 经颅光生物调制治疗神经发育障碍:综述。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-15 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00613-7
David Richer Araujo Coelho, Christian Renet, Sergi López-Rodríguez, Paolo Cassano, Willians Fernando Vieira

Background: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Down syndrome (DS) significantly impact social, communicative, and behavioral functioning. Transcranial photobiomodulation (t-PBM) with near-infrared light is a promising non-invasive neurostimulation technique for neuropsychiatric disorders, including NDDs. This narrative review aimed to examine the preclinical and clinical evidence of photobiomodulation (PBM) in treating NDDs.

Methods: A comprehensive search across six databases was conducted, using a combination of MeSH terms and title/abstract keywords: "photobiomodulation", "PBM", "neurodevelopmental disorders", "NDD", and others. Studies applying PBM to diagnosed NDD cases or animal models replicating NDDs were included. Protocols, reviews, studies published in languages other than English, and studies not evaluating clinical or cognitive outcomes were excluded.

Results: Nine studies were identified, including one preclinical and eight clinical studies (five on ASD, two on ADHD, and one on DS). The reviewed studies encompassed various t-PBM parameters (wavelengths: 635-905 nm) and targeted primarily frontal cortex areas. t-PBM showed efficacy in improving disruptive behavior, social communication, cognitive rigidity, sleep quality, and attention in ASD; in enhancing attention in ADHD; and in improving motor skills and verbal fluency in DS. Minimal adverse effects were reported. Proposed mechanisms involve enhanced mitochondrial function, modulated oxidative stress, and reduced neuroinflammation.

Conclusions: t-PBM emerges as a promising intervention for NDDs, with potential therapeutic effects across ASD, ADHD, and DS. These findings underscore the need for further research, including larger-scale, randomized sham-controlled clinical trials with comprehensive biomarker analyses, to optimize treatment parameters and understand the underlying mechanisms associated with the effects of t-PBM.

背景:自闭症谱系障碍(ASD)、注意力缺陷/多动障碍(ADHD)和唐氏综合征(DS)等神经发育障碍(NDDs)严重影响社交、沟通和行为功能。利用近红外线进行经颅光生物调制(t-PBM)是一种治疗包括 NDDs 在内的神经精神疾病的前景广阔的非侵入性神经刺激技术。本综述旨在研究光生物调控(PBM)治疗 NDDs 的临床前和临床证据:方法:使用 MeSH 术语和标题/摘要关键词组合对六个数据库进行了全面检索:"光生物调节"、"PBM"、"神经发育障碍"、"NDD "及其他。将 PBM 应用于确诊的 NDD 病例或复制 NDD 的动物模型的研究也包括在内。排除了协议、综述、以非英语语言发表的研究以及未评估临床或认知结果的研究:结果:共确定了 9 项研究,包括 1 项临床前研究和 8 项临床研究(5 项关于 ASD,2 项关于 ADHD,1 项关于 DS)。经审查的研究包括各种 t-PBM 参数(波长:635-905 纳米),主要针对额叶皮层区域。t-PBM 在改善 ASD 患者的破坏性行为、社会交往、认知僵化、睡眠质量和注意力;提高 ADHD 患者的注意力;以及改善 DS 患者的运动技能和语言流畅性方面显示出疗效。不良反应极少。结论:t-PBM 是一种很有前景的 NDD 干预疗法,对 ASD、ADHD 和 DS 具有潜在的治疗效果。这些发现强调了进一步研究的必要性,包括进行更大规模的随机假对照临床试验和全面的生物标志物分析,以优化治疗参数并了解与 t-PBM 效果相关的潜在机制。
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引用次数: 0
Enhanced photocatalytic performance of Bi-doped TiO2 under sunlight and UV light: mechanistic insights and comparative analysis. 双掺杂二氧化钛在阳光和紫外线下的光催化性能增强:机理认识和比较分析。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-15 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00609-3
Saurav Mishra, Nandana Chakinala, Govind Sethia, Anand G Chakinala, Praveen K Surolia

Bismuth-doped metal oxides exhibit favourable photocatalytic features when exposed to both sunlight and UV light. In this approach, Bi0/TiO2 and Bi+3/TiO2 photocatalysts were prepared and their structural and optical properties are analysed using various characterization techniques. These developed photocatalysts were further tested for the photocatalytic elimination of Nitrobenzene in UV light and sunlight and compared with the performance of bare TiO2. The catalyst Bi+3/TiO2 performed better in UV light with 72.31% degradation, and 4.74 × 10-6 mol.litre-1.min-1 initial rate of reaction. However, when exposed to sunlight, Bi0/TiO2 outperformed with 73.85% degradation, and 4.63 × 10-6 mol.min-1 initial rate of reaction. This significant increase in photocatalytic activity of Bi0/TiO2 under sunlight could be accredited to increased light harvesting and enhanced efficiency in charge carrier separation, both of which were made possible by bismuth-induced surface plasmon resonance.

掺铋金属氧化物在阳光和紫外线的照射下都能表现出良好的光催化特性。在这种方法中,制备了 Bi0/TiO2 和 Bi+3/TiO2 光催化剂,并使用各种表征技术分析了它们的结构和光学特性。这些开发的光催化剂在紫外线和阳光下进行了光催化消除硝基苯的进一步测试,并与裸 TiO2 的性能进行了比较。催化剂 Bi+3/TiO2 在紫外线下的性能更好,降解率为 72.31%,初始反应速率为 4.74 × 10-6 mol.litre-1.min-1。然而,当暴露在阳光下时,Bi0/TiO2 的性能更好,降解率为 73.85%,初始反应速率为 4.63 × 10-6 摩尔.升-1。在阳光下,Bi0/TiO2 的光催化活性大幅提高,这可能是因为双铋诱导的表面等离子体共振提高了光收集能力和电荷载流子分离效率。
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引用次数: 0
Light reception of Phycomyces revisited: several white collar proteins confer blue- and red-light sensitivity and control dynamic range and adaptation. 再论子囊菌的光接收:几种白领蛋白赋予蓝光和红光敏感性,并控制动态范围和适应性。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-13 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00604-8
Paul Galland, Luis M Corrochano

The giant-fruiting body, sporangiophore, of the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus grows toward near-UV/blue-light (phototropism). The blue-light photoreceptor, MadA, should contain FAD bound to the LOV domain, and forms a complex with MadB. Both proteins are homologs of white collar proteins WC-1 and WC-2 from the fungus Neurospora crassa and should be localized in nuclei, where they function as a light-sensitive transcription factor complex. The photoreceptor properties of two further Wc proteins, WcoA and WcoB, remain unclear because of lack of mutants. We propose that WcoA and/or WcoB play essential roles in photoreception by enlarging the dynamic range that help explain complex stimulus-response relationships. Even though red light does not elicit photo-movement or -differentiation in Phycomyces, it affects the effectiveness of blue light which indicates an underlying photochromic receptor. Protein sequence searches show that other fungal red-light receptors are absent in Phycomyces. The solution to the red-light riddle is thus sought in the ability of Wc complexes to generate after blue-light irradiation a neutral flavosemiquinone radical that absorbs red light and functions as primary photochemical signal. Phototropism requires Ras-GAP (MadC) as part of the signal transduction cascade and, we propose, to allocate photoreceptors in the plasmalemma of the growing zone, which allows for receptor dichroism, range adjustment and contrast recognition for spatial orientation. Phototropic signal chains must entail transduction networks between Wc receptors and small G-proteins and their associated Ras-GAP and Ras-GEF proteins. The interactions among these proteins should occur in trans-Golgi vesicles and the plasmalemma of the growing zone.

真菌 Phycomyces blakesleeanus 的巨大果实体孢子囊朝向近紫外线/蓝光(向光性)生长。蓝光光感受器 MadA 应含有与 LOV 结构域结合的 FAD,并与 MadB 形成复合物。这两种蛋白都是真菌克氏黑孢(Neurospora crassa)中白领蛋白 WC-1 和 WC-2 的同源物,应该定位于细胞核中,在细胞核中发挥光敏转录因子复合物的作用。由于缺乏突变体,另外两种 Wc 蛋白 WcoA 和 WcoB 的感光特性仍不清楚。我们认为,WcoA 和/或 WcoB 通过扩大动态范围在光感受中发挥着重要作用,有助于解释复杂的刺激-反应关系。尽管红光不会引起 Phycomyces 的光运动或光分化,但红光会影响蓝光的效果,这表明存在潜在的光致变色受体。蛋白质序列搜索显示,Phycomyces 中不存在其他真菌的红光受体。因此,红光之谜的答案就在于 Wc 复合物能够在蓝光照射后产生一种中性黄素醌自由基,这种自由基吸收红光并作为主要光化学信号发挥作用。向光性需要 Ras-GAP (MadC)作为信号转导级联的一部分,而且我们认为,Ras-GAP (MadC)可以在生长区的质膜上分配光感受器,从而实现受体二色性、范围调节和对比度识别,以确定空间方位。向光性信号链必须包括 Wc 受体与小 G 蛋白及其相关的 Ras-GAP 和 Ras-GEF 蛋白之间的传导网络。这些蛋白质之间的相互作用应发生在生长区的跨高尔基体囊泡和质膜中。
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引用次数: 0
Externally supplied ascorbic acid moderates detrimental effects of UV-C exposure in cyanobacteria. 外部供应的抗坏血酸可减轻蓝藻在紫外线-C照射下的有害影响。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00612-8
Tridip Phukan, Sukjailin Ryntathiang, Mayashree B Syiem

The defensive role performed by exogenously supplied ascorbic acid in the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum Meg1 against damages produced by UV-C radiation exposure was assessed in this study. Exposure to UV-C (24 mJ/cm2) significantly enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) (50%) along with peroxidation of lipids (21%) and protein oxidation (22%) in the organism. But, addition of 0.5 mM ascorbic acid prior to UV-C exposure showed reduction in ROS production (1.7%) and damages to lipids and proteins (1.5 and 2%, respectively). Light and transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that ascorbic acid not only protected filament breakage but also restricted severe ultrastructural changes and cellular damages in the organism. Although the growth of the organism was repressed up to 9% under UV-C treatment within 15 days, a pre-treatment with ascorbic acid led to growth enhancement by 42% in the same period. Various growth parameters such as photo-absorbing pigments (phycoerythrin, phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, chlorophyll a, and carotenoids), water splitting complex (WSC), D1 protein, RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase and nitrogenase activities in the UV-C treated organism were seen to be relatively intact in the presence of ascorbic acid. Thus, a detailed analysis undertaken in the present study was able to demonstrate that ascorbic acid not only act as first responder against harmful UV-C radiation by down-regulating ROS production, it also accelerated the growth performance in the organism in the post UV-C incubation period as an immediate response to an adverse experience presented in the form of UV-C radiation exposure.

本研究评估了外源提供的抗坏血酸在蓝藻 Nostoc muscorum Meg1 中对紫外线-C 辐射照射所产生的损害所起的防御作用。暴露于紫外线-C(24 mJ/cm2)会显著增强生物体内的活性氧(ROS)(50%)以及脂质过氧化(21%)和蛋白质氧化(22%)。但是,在紫外线照射前添加 0.5 mM 抗坏血酸可减少 ROS 的产生(1.7%)以及对脂质和蛋白质的破坏(分别为 1.5% 和 2%)。光镜和透射电子显微镜研究表明,抗坏血酸不仅能防止菌丝断裂,还能限制生物体内严重的超微结构变化和细胞损伤。虽然在紫外线-C 处理下,生物体的生长在 15 天内被抑制了 9%,但在同一时期,抗坏血酸的预处理使生物体的生长提高了 42%。在有抗坏血酸存在的情况下,紫外线-C 处理生物体内的各种生长参数,如光吸收色素(植物红素、植物花青素、异叶花青素、叶绿素 a 和类胡萝卜素)、分水复合体(WSC)、D1 蛋白、RuBisCO、谷氨酰胺合成酶和氮酶活性都保持相对完整。因此,本研究中进行的详细分析能够证明,抗坏血酸不仅能通过下调 ROS 的产生来作为抵御有害紫外线-C 辐射的第一反应器,还能在紫外线-C 后培养期间加速生物体的生长性能,作为对紫外线-C 辐射照射形式的不利经历的直接反应。
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引用次数: 0
Intramolecular [π4s + π4s] photocycloaddition of carbon- and nitrogen-bridged [32](1,4)naphthalenophanes. 碳和氮桥式 [32](1,4)萘烷的分子内 [π4s + π4s] 光环加成。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-10 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00610-w
Yukiko Oguma, Masanori Yamamoto, Yukinari Sunatsuki, Hiromi Ota, Minoru Yamaji, Hideki Okamoto

[32](1,4)Naphthalenophanes, bearing carbon-bridge chains (syn- and anti-NPs) and nitrogen-bridge chains (syn- and anti-ANPs), were synthesized, and their X-ray structures and photoreactions were investigated. The intramolecular separation distance between the naphthalene cores for ANPs was shorter than that for NPs, suggesting that intramolecular interactions between the naphthalene rings  were more efficient for ANPs compared to NPs. Upon photoirradiation at 300 nm, anti-NP, syn-ANP and anti-ANP produced the corresponding intramolecular [π4s + π4s] cycloadducts, whereas syn-NP gave an unidentified complex product mixture. Quantum yields for the photo-consumption (ΦPC) of NPs and ANPs were evaluated to quantitatively compare their photoreactivity. The ΦPC values of ANPs were approximately two-fold higher than those of ANPs.Noteworthily, the ΦPC value of syn-ANP was estimated to be unity. Based on these results we discuss the effects of the alignments of the naphthalene cores (anti vs. syn) and the bridging elements (C-bridge vs. N-bridge) on the photoreaction efficiencies of [32](1,4)naphthalenophanes.

[32]合成了带有碳桥链(同步和反 NPs)和氮桥链(同步和反 ANPs)的(1,4)萘烷,并研究了它们的 X 射线结构和光反应。与 NPs 相比,ANPs 的萘核之间的分子内分离距离更短,这表明 ANPs 与 NPs 相比,萘环之间的分子内相互作用更有效。在 300 纳米波长的光照射下,反 ANP、合成 ANP 和反 ANP 产生了相应的分子内 [π4s + π4s] 环加载产物,而合成 ANP 则产生了不明的复合产物混合物。对 NPs 和 ANPs 的光消耗量子产率(ΦPC)进行了评估,以定量比较它们的光活性。ANPs 的 ΦPC 值大约是 ANPs 的两倍。基于这些结果,我们讨论了萘核的排列(反向与同步)和桥接元素(C 桥与 N 桥)对 [32](1,4)萘烷光反应效率的影响。
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引用次数: 0
Projected changes in ultraviolet index and UV doses over the twenty-first century: impacts of ozone and aerosols from CMIP6. 预测二十一世纪紫外线指数和紫外线剂量的变化:CMIP6 中臭氧和气溶胶的影响。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-01 Epub Date: 2024-05-19 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00594-7
Ana Letícia Campos Yamamoto, Marcelo de Paula Corrêa, Roger Rodrigues Torres, Fabrina Bolzan Martins, Sophie Godin-Beekmann

This study evaluated the health-related weighted ultraviolet radiation (UVR) due to the total ozone content (TOC) and the aerosol optical depth (AOD) changes. Clear-sky Ultraviolet Index (UVI), daily doses, and exposure times for erythema induction (Dery and Tery) and vitamin D synthesis (DvitD and TvitD) were computed by a radiative transfer estimator. TOC and AOD data were provided by six Earth System Models (ESMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6). For projections, we consider four Shared Socioeconomic Pathways scenarios-SSPs (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5)-and two time-slices (near: 2041-2060 and far future: 2081-2100). UVR projections showed pronounced changes for the summer hemispheres in the far future. TOC increases in mid- and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere caused decreases in UVR at the summer solstice. However, projections did not indicate sun-safe exposure conditions in South America, Australia, and Southern Africa. On the contrary, exposure around solar noon from 10 to 20 min will still be sufficient to induce erythema in skin type III individuals throughout this century. In southern Argentina and Chile, the UVR insufficiency for vitamin D synthesis at solar noon in skin type III remains the same during this century at the winter solstice. In the Northern Hemisphere, UVI and Dery at the summer solstice should remain high (UVI ≥ 8; Dery ~ 7.0 kJ m-2) in highly populated locations. Above 45 °N, UVR levels cannot be enough to synthesize vitamin D in skin type III during the boreal winter. Our results show that climate change will affect human health through excess or lack of solar UVR availability.

本研究评估了臭氧总含量(TOC)和气溶胶光学深度(AOD)变化引起的与健康相关的加权紫外线辐射(UVR)。晴空紫外线指数(UVI)、每日剂量以及红斑诱导(Dery 和 Tery)和维生素 D 合成(DvitD 和 TvitD)的照射时间均由辐射传递估算器计算得出。TOC和AOD数据由耦合模式相互比较项目第六阶段(CMIP6)的六个地球系统模式(ESM)提供。在预测时,我们考虑了四种共享社会经济路径情景(SSP1-2.6、SSP2-4.5、SSP3-7.0 和 SSP5-8.5)和两个时间片(近期:2041-2060 年和远期:2081-2100 年)。紫外线辐射率预测显示,远期夏半球的紫外线辐射率会发生明显变化。南半球中高纬度地区总有机碳的增加导致夏至紫外线辐射率下降。然而,预测结果并没有表明南美洲、澳大利亚和南部非洲的曝晒条件是安全的。相反,在整个本世纪,太阳正午前后 10 至 20 分钟的曝晒仍足以诱发 III 型皮肤的人出现红斑。在阿根廷南部和智利,本世纪冬至日正午的紫外线辐射对 III 型皮肤合成维生素 D 的不足量保持不变。在北半球,人口稠密地区夏至日的紫外线辐射指数和紫外线吸收率应保持在较高水平(紫外线辐射指数≥8;紫外线吸收率约为 7.0 kJ m-2)。在北纬 45°以上,紫外线辐射水平不足以在北方冬季在 III 型皮肤中合成维生素 D。我们的研究结果表明,气候变化将通过太阳紫外线辐射过量或不足影响人类健康。
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引用次数: 0
Recent progress of metal halide perovskite materials in heterogeneous photocatalytic organic reactions. 金属卤化物包晶材料在异相光催化有机反应中的最新进展。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-01 Epub Date: 2024-06-08 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00599-2
Chunpei Yan, Yan Qian, Zhaohong Liao, Zhanggao Le, Qiangwen Fan, Haibo Zhu, Zongbo Xie

Photocatalytic technology is widely regarded as an important way to utilize solar energy and achieve carbon neutrality, which has attracted considerable attentions in various fields over the past decades. Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are recognized as "superstar" materials due to their exceptional photoelectric properties, readily accessible and tunable structure, which made them intensively studied in solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and solar energy conversion fields. Since 2018, increased attention has been focused on applying the MHPs as a heterogeneous visible light photocatalyst in catalyzing organic synthesis reactions. In this review, we present an overview of photocatalytic technology and principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis before delving into the structural characteristics, stability, and classifications of MHPs. We then focus on recent developments of MHPs in photocatalyzing various organic synthesis reactions, such as oxidation, cyclization, C-C coupling etc., based on their classifications and reported reaction types. Finally, we discuss the main limitations and prospects regarding the application of metal halide perovskites in organic synthesis.

光催化技术被广泛认为是利用太阳能和实现碳中和的重要途径,过去几十年来在各个领域引起了广泛关注。金属卤化物过氧化物(MHPs)因其优异的光电特性、易获得性和可调控的结构而被公认为 "超级明星 "材料,在太阳能电池、发光二极管和太阳能转换等领域得到了深入研究。2018 年以来,人们越来越关注将 MHPs 作为异相可见光光催化剂应用于催化有机合成反应。在本综述中,我们首先概述了光催化技术和异相光催化原理,然后深入探讨了 MHPs 的结构特征、稳定性和分类。然后,我们根据 MHPs 的分类和报告的反应类型,重点介绍了 MHPs 在光催化各种有机合成反应(如氧化、环化、C-C 偶联等)方面的最新进展。最后,我们讨论了金属卤化物过氧化物在有机合成中应用的主要局限性和前景。
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引用次数: 0
Exploring the complexities of plant UV responses; distinct effects of UV-A and UV-B wavelengths on Arabidopsis rosette morphology. 探索植物紫外线反应的复杂性;UV-A 和 UV-B 波长对拟南芥莲座形态的不同影响。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-01 Epub Date: 2024-05-12 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00591-w
Natalie Cunningham, Gaia Crestani, Kristóf Csepregi, Neil E Coughlan, Marcel A K Jansen

UV-B radiation can substantially impact plant growth. To study UV-B effects, broadband UV-B tubes are commonly used. Apart from UV-B, such tubes also emit UV-A wavelengths. This study aimed to distinguish effects of different UV-B intensities on Arabidopsis thaliana wildtype and UVR8 mutant rosette morphology, from those by accompanying UV-A. UV-A promotes leaf-blade expansion along the proximal-distal, but not the medio-lateral, axis. Consequent increases in blade length: width ratio are associated with increased light capture. However, petiole length is not affected by UV-A exposure. This scenario is distinct from the shade avoidance driven by low red to far-red ratios, whereby leaf blade elongation is impeded but petiole elongation is promoted. Thus, the UV-A mediated elongation response is phenotypically distinct from classical shade avoidance. UV-B exerts inhibitory effects on petiole length, blade length and leaf area, and these effects are mediated by UVR8. Thus, UV-B antagonises aspects of both UV-A mediated elongation and classical shade avoidance. Indeed, this study shows that accompanying UV-A wavelengths can mask effects of UV-B. This may lead to potential underestimates of the magnitude of the UV-B induced morphological response using broadband UV-B tubes.

紫外线-B 辐射会对植物生长产生重大影响。为了研究紫外线-B 的影响,通常使用宽带紫外线-B 管。除紫外线-B 外,这类紫外辐射管还能发射紫外线-A 波长。本研究旨在区分不同紫外线-B强度对拟南芥野生型和 UVR8 突变体莲座丛形态的影响,以及伴随紫外线-A的影响。UV-A 促进叶片沿近端-远端轴扩展,而不是沿中间-外侧轴扩展。叶片长宽比的相应增加与光捕获的增加有关。然而,叶柄长度不受紫外线照射的影响。这种情况有别于由低红远红比驱动的避阴现象,后者阻碍了叶片的伸长,但促进了叶柄的伸长。因此,紫外线-A 介导的伸长反应在表型上有别于传统的避荫反应。紫外线-B 对叶柄长度、叶片长度和叶面积都有抑制作用,这些作用是由 UVR8 介导的。因此,UV-B 可拮抗 UV-A 介导的伸长和典型的避荫。事实上,这项研究表明,伴随的 UV-A 波长会掩盖 UV-B 的影响。这可能会导致使用宽带紫外线-B 管时低估紫外线-B 诱导的形态反应的程度。
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引用次数: 0
Substituent effects of halogens on the excited-state intermolecular proton transfer reactions. 卤素对激发态分子间质子转移反应的取代作用。
IF 2.7 3区 化学 Q3 BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY Pub Date : 2024-07-01 Epub Date: 2024-06-08 DOI: 10.1007/s43630-024-00598-3
Hiroki Oyama, Yoshinobu Nishimura

Fluorescent aromatic urea compounds undergo excited-state intermolecular proton transfer (ESPT) in the presence of acetate anions to produce an excited state of the tautomer (T*) from the excited state of the complex (N*), resulting in dual fluorescence. Herein, we performed spectroscopic measurements of anthracen-1-yl-3-phenylurea derivatives with substituents, -CF3, -F, or -Cl, at the p-position of the phenyl group in the presence of acetate to investigate the substituent effects on the ESPT reaction and the deactivation processes of N* and T*. Kinetic analysis showed that the reverse ESPT rate constant (k-PT) depended on the respective substituents, suggesting that each substituent may influence the reverse ESPT process differently. In particular, since the electron-withdrawing properties of -F are estimated by the - I and + Iπ effects, it is plausible that -F has a slight electron-donating property and influences the reverse process from T* to N* in the excited state. This study shows that it is possible to control emission by selecting specific substituents in the ESPT system.

荧光芳香族脲化合物在醋酸阴离子存在下发生激发态分子间质子转移(ESPT),从复合物(N*)的激发态产生同分异构体(T*)的激发态,从而产生双重荧光。在此,我们对苯基 p 位上有取代基(-CF3、-F 或 -Cl)的蒽-1-基-3-苯基脲衍生物在醋酸盐存在下进行了光谱测量,以研究取代基对 ESPT 反应的影响以及 N* 和 T* 的失活过程。动力学分析表明,反向 ESPT 速率常数(k-PT)取决于各自的取代基,这表明每个取代基可能会对反向 ESPT 过程产生不同的影响。特别是,由于 -F 的抽电子特性是通过 - I 和 + Iπ 效应来估算的,因此 -F 具有轻微的供电子特性并影响激发态中从 T* 到 N* 的反向过程是可信的。这项研究表明,通过在 ESPT 系统中选择特定的取代基来控制发射是可能的。
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引用次数: 0
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Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
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