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The perception of air pollution and its health risk: a scoping review of measures and methods. 对空气污染及其健康风险的认识:措施和方法的范围审查。
IF 2.2 3区 医学 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-28 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2370100
Zeinab Bahrami, Satomi Sato, Zhesi Yang, Monali Maiti, Paoin Kanawat, Tomohiro Umemura, Kazunari Onishi, Hiroaki Terasaki, Tomoki Nakayama, Yutaka Matsumi, Kayo Ueda

Background: Although there is increasing awareness of the health risks of air pollution as a global issue, few studies have focused on the methods for assessing individuals' perceptions of these risks. This scoping review aimed to identify previous research evaluating individuals' perceptions of air pollution and its health effects, and to explore the measurement of perceptions, as a key resource for health behaviour.

Methods: The review followed the methodological framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. PubMed and Web of Science were searched. After initial and full-text screening, we further selected studies with standardised scales that had previously been tested for reliability and validity in assessing awareness and perceptions.

Results: After full-text screening, 95 studies were identified. 'Perception/awareness of air quality' was often measured, as well as 'Perception of health risk.' Only nine studies (9.5%) used validated scaled questionnaires. There was considerable variation in the scales used to measure the multiple dimensions of risk perception for air pollution.

Conclusion: Few studies used structured scales to quantify individuals' perceptions, limiting comparisons among studies. Standardised methods for measuring health risk perception are needed.

背景:尽管人们越来越意识到空气污染的健康风险是一个全球性问题,但很少有研究关注评估个人对这些风险的看法的方法。本范围综述旨在确定以往评估个人对空气污染及其健康影响的看法的研究,并探讨作为健康行为关键资源的看法的测量方法:综述遵循 Arksey 和 O'Malley 提出的方法框架。对 PubMed 和 Web of Science 进行了检索。经过初步筛选和全文筛选后,我们进一步选择了使用标准化量表的研究,这些量表在评估意识和观念方面的可靠性和有效性之前已经过测试:经过全文筛选,确定了 95 项研究。对空气质量的感知/认知 "以及 "对健康风险的感知 "经常被测量。只有 9 项研究(9.5%)使用了经过验证的量表问卷。用于测量空气污染风险感知多个维度的量表差异很大:很少有研究使用结构化量表来量化个人感知,这限制了研究间的比较。测量健康风险认知需要标准化的方法。
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引用次数: 0
Adaptation and validation of the Children's Surgical Assessment Tool for Rwandan district hospitals. 为卢旺达地区医院改编和验证儿童外科评估工具。
IF 2.6 3区 医学 Q1 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-01-09 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2023.2297870
Sarah Nuss, Jean Paul Majyambere, Edmond Ntaganda, Callum Forbes, Jonathan Nkurunziza, Carol Mugabo, Vincent Cubaka, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier

Background/aims: Paediatric surgical care is a critical component of child health and basic universal health coverage and therefore should be included in comprehensive evaluations of surgical capacity. This study adapted and validated the Children's Surgical Assessment Tool (CSAT), a tool developed for district and tertiary hospitals in Nigeria to evaluate hospital infrastructure, workforce, service delivery, financing, and training capacity for paediatric surgery, for use in district hospitals in Rwanda.

Methods: We used a three-round modified Delphi process to adapt the CSAT to the Rwandan context. An expert panel of surgeons, anaesthesiologists, paediatricians, and health systems strengthening experts were invited to participate based on their experience with paediatric surgical or anaesthetic care at district hospitals or with health systems strengthening in the Rwandan context. We used the Content Validity Index to validate the final tool.

Results: The adapted tool had a final score of 0.84 on the Content Validity Index, indicating a high level of agreement among the expert panel. The final tool comprised 171 items across five domains: facility characteristics, service delivery, workforce, financing, and training/research.

Conclusion: The adapted CSAT is appropriate for use in district hospitals in Rwanda to evaluate the capacity for paediatric surgery. This study provides a framework for adapting and validating a comprehensive paediatric surgical assessment tool to local contexts in LMICs and used in similar settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

背景/目的:儿科外科护理是儿童健康和基本全民医保的重要组成部分,因此应纳入外科能力的综合评估中。本研究对儿童外科评估工具(CSAT)进行了改编和验证,该工具是为尼日利亚的地区医院和三级医院开发的,用于评估医院的基础设施、员工队伍、服务提供、融资和儿科外科培训能力,也可用于卢旺达的地区医院:方法:我们采用了三轮修改过的德尔菲程序,使 CSAT 适应卢旺达的国情。我们邀请了外科医生、麻醉师、儿科医生和卫生系统强化专家组成专家小组,根据他们在卢旺达地区医院儿科手术或麻醉护理或卫生系统强化方面的经验进行讨论。我们使用内容有效性指数对最终工具进行了验证:结果:改编后的工具在内容有效性指数上的最终得分为 0.84,表明专家小组之间的意见高度一致。最终工具由 171 个项目组成,涵盖五个领域:设施特征、服务提供、劳动力、融资和培训/研究:结论:改编后的 CSAT 适合卢旺达地区医院用于评估儿科手术能力。这项研究提供了一个框架,用于改编和验证小儿外科综合评估工具,以适应低收入国家的当地情况,并在撒哈拉以南非洲的类似环境中使用。
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引用次数: 0
Overweight and obesity trends and associated factors among reproductive women in Ethiopia. 埃塞俄比亚育龄妇女的超重和肥胖趋势及相关因素。
IF 2.6 3区 医学 Q1 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-12 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2362728
Ermias Tadesse Beyene, Seungman Cha, Yan Jin

Background: In low- and middle-income countries, the double burden of malnutrition is prevalent. Many countries in Africa are currently confronted with overweight and obesity, particularly among women, coupled with an increase in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases.

Objective: This study examines trends in overweight and obesity among Ethiopian women of reproductive age from 2005 to 2016, and identifies associated factors.

Methods: We used three consecutive datasets from 2005 (n = 14070), 2011 (n = 16515), and 2016 (n = 15683) demographic health survey years. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the determinant factors among individual- and cluster-level variables.

Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among reproductive women in Ethiopia increased steadily from 6.09% in 2005 to 8.54% in 2011, and 10.16% in 2016. However, mixed patterns were observed among the regions of the country. We found that age, education, living in urban areas, and living in a rich community are associated with becoming overweight and obese. For instance, the odds of becoming overweight and obese among women aged 35-49 were higher than those among women aged 15-24 (odds ratio [OR] = 3.62, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]:2.64-4.97). Women who completed secondary school have higher odds than those without formal education (OR = 1.64, 95% CI:1.19-2.26).

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate trends in the nationwide prevalence of overweight and obesity and the associated factors among Ethiopian women. This study warrants further follow-up research to identify the pathways between overweight and obesity and their probable factors.

背景:中低收入国家普遍存在营养不良的双重负担。非洲许多国家目前都面临着超重和肥胖的问题,尤其是女性,同时非传染性疾病的发病率也在上升:本研究探讨了 2005 年至 2016 年埃塞俄比亚育龄妇女超重和肥胖的趋势,并确定了相关因素:我们使用了 2005 年(n = 14070)、2011 年(n = 16515)和 2016 年(n = 15683)人口健康调查年的三个连续数据集。采用多层次逻辑回归确定个人和群组变量中的决定因素:埃塞俄比亚育龄妇女的超重和肥胖患病率从2005年的6.09%稳步上升至2011年的8.54%和2016年的10.16%。然而,该国各地区的情况不尽相同。我们发现,年龄、受教育程度、生活在城市地区以及生活在富裕社区与超重和肥胖有关。例如,35-49 岁女性超重和肥胖的几率高于 15-24 岁女性(几率比 [OR] = 3.62,95% 置信区间 [CI]:2.64-4.97)。受过中学教育的女性比未受过正规教育的女性有更高的几率(OR = 1.64,95% 置信区间:1.19-2.26):据我们所知,这是第一项调查全国范围内埃塞俄比亚妇女超重和肥胖流行趋势及相关因素的研究。这项研究值得进一步跟进研究,以确定超重和肥胖及其可能因素之间的关系。
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引用次数: 0
The pioneers of Vietnam's epidemiological transition: an ethnographic study of pregnant women's experiences of gestational diabetes. 越南流行病转型的先驱:对孕妇妊娠糖尿病经历的人种学研究。
IF 2.6 3区 医学 Q1 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-05-02 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2341521
Tine M Gammeltoft, Thi Ai Nguyen, Thi Kim Dung, Ngoc-Anh Thi Dang, Thi Minh Phuong Nguyen, Van Tien Nguyen, Ib C Bygbjerg

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an abnormal glucose metabolism diagnosed during pregnancy that can have serious adverse consequences for mother and child. GDM is an exceptional health condition, as its management serves not only as treatment but also as prevention, reducing the risk of future diabetes in mother and child.

Objectives: This qualitative study aimed to explore how pregnant women experience and respond to GDM, focusing particularly on the role of the family environment in shaping women's experiences.

Methods: The research was carried out in Vietnam's Thái Bình province in April-May 2023. We conducted in-depth ethnographic interviews with 21 women with GDM, visiting them in their homes. Our theoretical starting point was phenomenological anthropology, and the data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach.

Results: At the centre of women's experiences was the contrast between GDM as a biomedical and a social condition. Whereas GDM was biomedically diagnosed and managed in the healthcare system, it was often deemed insignificant or non-existent by family members. This made GDM a biomedically present but socially absent health condition. This paradox posed challenges to women's GDM self-care, placing them in pioneering social positions.

Conclusions: The biomedical presence yet social absence of GDM turned women into pioneers at biomedical, digital, epidemiological, and family frontiers. This article calls for appreciation of pregnant women's pioneering roles and for health systems action to involve women and families in the development of GDM policies and programmes at a time of sweeping global health changes.

背景:妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)是一种在妊娠期间被诊断出的糖代谢异常,可对母婴造成严重的不良后果。妊娠期糖尿病是一种特殊的健康状况,因为对其进行管理不仅可以治疗,还可以预防,降低母婴未来患糖尿病的风险:这项定性研究旨在探讨孕妇如何经历和应对 GDM,尤其关注家庭环境在影响妇女经历方面的作用:研究于 2023 年 4 月至 5 月在越南 Thái Bình 省进行。我们对 21 名患有 GDM 的妇女进行了深入的人种学访谈,并到她们家中进行了访问。我们的理论出发点是现象学人类学,并采用主题分析方法对数据进行了分析:妇女经历的核心是 GDM 作为一种生物医学疾病和一种社会疾病之间的对比。虽然 GDM 在医疗系统中是由生物医学诊断和管理的,但家庭成员往往认为它无关紧要或不存在。这使得 GDM 成为一种生物医学上存在但社会上不存在的健康问题。这一悖论给妇女的 GDM 自我保健带来了挑战,使她们处于社会的先驱地位:结论:GDM 的生物医学存在而社会缺失,使妇女成为生物医学、数字、流行病学和家庭领域的先锋。这篇文章呼吁重视孕妇的先锋作用,并呼吁卫生系统采取行动,让妇女和家庭在全球卫生发生巨变之际参与制定 GDM 政策和计划。
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引用次数: 0
Prevalence and social determinants of smoking among men in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study. 毛里求斯男性吸烟率及其社会决定因素:横断面研究。
IF 2.2 3区 医学 Q1 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-20 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2367415
Miguel San Sebastián, Tuomilehto Jaakko, Stefan Söderberg, Paul Zimmet, Bhushan Ori, Jaysing Heecharan, Osvaldo Fonseca-Rodríguez, Sudhirsen Kowlessur

Background: Mauritius has implemented a range of stringent policies to control smoking and promote public health. Regular monitoring focuses on the prevalence of tobacco use, yet there is a gap in understanding its socio-economic patterns.

Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to identify the social determinants associated with smoking among men in Mauritius in 2021.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted by the Ministry of Health and Wellness during 2021. In total, 3622 individuals participated (response rate of 84.1%), of which 1663 were men (45.9%). The study mainly focused on men given the low prevalence of smoking among women. Daily smoking was the outcome and a series of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were included as independent variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated to fulfill the study objective.

Results: The prevalence of smoking among men was 30.4%. People in the 25-34 age group (PR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.12-2.41), those separated, divorced or widowed (PR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.16-2.11), the ethnic groups Muslim-Mauritians (PR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.00-2.89) and Creoles (PR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.16-3.35), and those with secondary (PR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.00-1.67) and primary education (PR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.10-1.98) were statistically significantly associated with daily smoking.

Conclusions: Although a gradual decline in smoking prevalence was observed compared with the previous 2015 survey, the Ministry of Health and Wellness should persist in fortifying its anti-smoking measures and concentrate on crafting tailored interventions aimed at the vulnerable groups identified in this study.

背景:毛里求斯实施了一系列严格的控烟政策,以促进公众健康。定期监测的重点是烟草使用率,但对其社会经济模式的了解还存在差距:本研究旨在估算 2021 年毛里求斯男性吸烟率,并确定与吸烟相关的社会决定因素:这是卫生与健康部在 2021 年开展的一项基于人口的横断面研究。共有 3622 人参与(回复率为 84.1%),其中 1663 人为男性(45.9%)。鉴于女性吸烟率较低,研究主要集中在男性身上。日常吸烟是研究的结果,一系列社会人口和社会经济因素被列为自变量。为实现研究目标,对流行率(PR)及其 95% 置信区间(95% CI)进行了估算:结果:男性吸烟率为 30.4%。25-34 岁年龄组(PR = 1.65;95% CI:1.12-2.41)、分居、离婚或丧偶者(PR = 1.57;95% CI:1.16-2.11)、穆斯林-毛利人(PR = 1.70;95% CI:1.00-2.89)和克里奥尔人(PR = 1.97;95% CI:1.16-3.35)、受过中等教育(PR = 1.29;95% CI:1.00-1.67)和小学教育(PR = 1.47;95% CI:1.10-1.98)的人与每天吸烟在统计学上有显著相关性:尽管与 2015 年的上一次调查相比,吸烟率逐渐下降,但卫生与健康部仍应坚持强化其禁烟措施,并集中精力针对本研究中发现的弱势群体制定有针对性的干预措施。
{"title":"Prevalence and social determinants of smoking among men in Mauritius: a cross-sectional study.","authors":"Miguel San Sebastián, Tuomilehto Jaakko, Stefan Söderberg, Paul Zimmet, Bhushan Ori, Jaysing Heecharan, Osvaldo Fonseca-Rodríguez, Sudhirsen Kowlessur","doi":"10.1080/16549716.2024.2367415","DOIUrl":"10.1080/16549716.2024.2367415","url":null,"abstract":"<p><strong>Background: </strong>Mauritius has implemented a range of stringent policies to control smoking and promote public health. Regular monitoring focuses on the prevalence of tobacco use, yet there is a gap in understanding its socio-economic patterns.</p><p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to identify the social determinants associated with smoking among men in Mauritius in 2021.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>This is a cross-sectional population-based study conducted by the Ministry of Health and Wellness during 2021. In total, 3622 individuals participated (response rate of 84.1%), of which 1663 were men (45.9%). The study mainly focused on men given the low prevalence of smoking among women. Daily smoking was the outcome and a series of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were included as independent variables. Prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated to fulfill the study objective.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of smoking among men was 30.4%. People in the 25-34 age group (PR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.12-2.41), those separated, divorced or widowed (PR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.16-2.11), the ethnic groups Muslim-Mauritians (PR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.00-2.89) and Creoles (PR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.16-3.35), and those with secondary (PR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.00-1.67) and primary education (PR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.10-1.98) were statistically significantly associated with daily smoking.</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Although a gradual decline in smoking prevalence was observed compared with the previous 2015 survey, the Ministry of Health and Wellness should persist in fortifying its anti-smoking measures and concentrate on crafting tailored interventions aimed at the vulnerable groups identified in this study.</p>","PeriodicalId":49197,"journal":{"name":"Global Health Action","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.2,"publicationDate":"2024-12-31","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC11191822/pdf/","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141428085","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"医学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"OA","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Factors affecting private sector engagement in achieving universal health coverage: a scoping review. 影响私营部门参与实现全民医保的因素:范围界定审查。
IF 2.2 3区 医学 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2375672
Naser Derakhshani, Ramin Rezapour, Saber Azami-Aghdash, Hamideh Nafar, Samira Soleimanpour, Emir Tahmazi Aghdam, Mohammadreza Maleki

Background: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is one of the most important strategies adopted by countries in achieving goals of sustainable development. To achieve UHC, the governments need the engagement of the private sector.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting private sector engagement in achieving universal health coverage.

Methods: The study is a scoping review that utilizes Arkesy & O'Malley frameworks. Data collection was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, Embase, ProQuest, SID, and MagIran databases and the Google Scholar search engine. Also, manual searches of journals and websites, reference checks, and grey literature searches were done using specific keywords. To manage and screen the studies, EndNote X8 software was used. Data extraction and analysis was done by two members of the research team, independently and using content analysis.

Results: According to the results, 43 studies out of 588 studies were included. Most of the studies were international (18 studies). Extracted data were divided into four main categories: challenges, barriers, facilitators, goals, and reasons for engagement. After exclusion and integration of identified data, these categories were classified in the following manner: barriers and challenges with 59 items and in 13 categories, facilitators in 50 items and 9 categories, reasons with 30 items, and in 5 categories and goals with 24 items and 6 categories.

Conclusion: Utilizing the experience of different countries, challenges and barriers, facilitators, reasons, and goals were analyzed and classified. This investigation can be used to develop the engagement of the private sector and organizational synergy in achieving UHC by policymakers and planners.

背景:全民健康保险(UHC)是各国为实现可持续发展目标而采取的最重要战略之一。要实现全民医保,政府需要私营部门的参与:本研究旨在确定影响私营部门参与实现全民医保的因素:本研究采用 Arkesy 和 O'Malley 框架进行范围界定。数据收集通过 MEDLINE、Web of Sciences、Embase、ProQuest、SID 和 MagIran 数据库以及 Google Scholar 搜索引擎进行。此外,还使用特定关键词对期刊和网站进行了人工检索、参考文献检查和灰色文献检索。使用 EndNote X8 软件对研究进行管理和筛选。数据提取和分析由研究小组的两名成员独立完成,并采用内容分析法:结果显示,在 588 项研究中,有 43 项研究被纳入。大部分研究为国际研究(18 项)。提取的数据分为四大类:挑战、障碍、促进因素、目标和参与原因。在排除和整合已确定的数据后,这些类别按以下方式进行了分类:障碍和挑战有 59 个项目,分属 13 个类别;促进因素有 50 个项目,分属 9 个类别;原因有 30 个项目,分属 5 个类别;目标有 24 个项目,分属 6 个类别:利用不同国家的经验,对挑战和障碍、促进因素、原因和目标进行了分析和分类。这项调查可用于政策制定者和规划者在实现全民保健的过程中促进私营部门的参与和组织协同。
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引用次数: 0
Barriers and pathways to environmental surveillance of antibiotic resistance in middle- and low-income settings: a qualitative exploratory key expert study. 中低收入环境中抗生素耐药性环境监测的障碍和途径:关键专家定性探索研究。
IF 2.6 3区 医学 Q1 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-05-30 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2343318
Ann-Christin Peters, D G Joakim Larsson, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Christian Munthe

Background: Local and global surveillance of antibiotic resistance (ABR) has proven a challenge to implement effectively in low- and middleincome (LMI) settings. Environmental surveillance solutions are increasingly highlighted as a strategy to help overcome such problems, and thus to promote global health as well as the local management of ABR in LMI countries. While technical and scientific aspects of such solutions are being probed continuously, no study has investigated their practical feasibility.

Objective: Explore practical barriers for environmental surveillance of ABR in LMI countries, and pathways for surveillance experts to manage these.

Methods: To start charting this unknown territory, we conducted an explorative, qualitative interview study with key informants, applying a constructivist grounded theory approach to analyze the results.

Results: Barriers were identified across infrastructural, institutional and social dimensions, and pathways to manage them were mostly counterproductive from an ABR management perspective, including avoiding entire regions, applying substandard methods and failing to include local collaborators.

Conclusion: The research community as well as international agencies, organizations and states have key roles and responsibilities for improving the prospects of feasible environmental ABR surveillance in LMI-settings.

背景:事实证明,在中低收入(LMI)环境中有效实施地方和全球抗生素耐药性(ABR)监测是一项挑战。环境监测解决方案作为一种有助于克服这些问题,从而促进全球健康以及中低收入国家当地抗生素耐药性管理的战略,日益受到重视。虽然此类解决方案的技术和科学方面正在不断探索,但还没有研究对其实际可行性进行调查:目标:探索低密度国家 ABR 环境监测的实际障碍,以及监测专家管理这些障碍的途径:为了开始描绘这一未知领域,我们对主要信息提供者进行了探索性定性访谈研究,并采用建构主义基础理论方法对结果进行分析:结果:我们发现了基础设施、制度和社会方面的障碍,从 ABR 管理的角度来看,管理这些障碍的途径大多适得其反,包括避开整个区域、采用不合标准的方法以及未能纳入当地合作者:结论:研究界以及国际机构、组织和国家在改善 LMI 环境中可行的 ABR 监测前景方面具有关键作用和责任。
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引用次数: 0
Ten years of ear, nose and throat (ENT) services in Southern Africa: a scoping review. 南部非洲耳鼻喉(ENT)服务十年:范围界定审查。
IF 2.2 3区 医学 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-27 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2370102
Lufunda Lukama, Colleen Aldous, Warren Kuhn, Charles Michelo, Chester Kalinda

Background: While ear, nose, and throat (ENT) diseases are a substantial threat to global health, comprehensive reviews of ENT services in Southern Africa remain scarce.

Objective: This scoping review provides a decade-long overview of ENT services in Southern Africa and identifies gaps in healthcare provision. From the current literature, we hope to provide evidence-based recommendations to mitigate the challenges faced by the resource-limited ENT service.

Data sources: PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Library, and Scopus.

Review methods: On several databases, we conducted a comprehensive literature search on both quantitative and qualitative studies on ENT services in Southern Africa, published between 1 January 2014 and 27 February 2024. The extracted data from the analyzed studies was summarized into themes.

Results: Four themes in the fourteen studies included in the final analysis described the existing ENT services in Southern Africa: 1. Workforce scarcity and knowledge inadequacies, 2. Deficiencies in ENT infrastructure, equipment, and medication, 3. Inadequate ENT disease screening, management, and rehabilitation and 4. A lack of telehealth technology.

Conclusion: The Southern African ENT health service faces many disease screening, treatment, and rehabilitation challenges, including critical shortages of workforce, equipment, and medication. These challenges, impeding patient access to ENT healthcare, could be effectively addressed by implementing deliberate policies to train a larger workforce, increase ENT funding for equipment and medication, promote telehealth, and reduce the patient cost of care.

背景:虽然耳鼻喉科疾病对全球健康构成严重威胁,但对南部非洲耳鼻喉科服务的全面审查仍然很少:本综述对南部非洲的耳鼻喉科服务进行了长达十年的概述,并找出了医疗服务中存在的差距。我们希望从现有文献中提供基于证据的建议,以减轻资源有限的耳鼻喉科服务所面临的挑战:PubMed、Web of Science、EBSCOhost、Cochrane Library、Cochrane Library 和 Scopus:在多个数据库中,我们对 2014 年 1 月 1 日至 2024 年 2 月 27 日期间发表的有关南部非洲耳鼻喉科服务的定量和定性研究进行了全面的文献检索。我们将从分析研究中提取的数据归纳为若干主题:在最终分析的 14 项研究中,有四个主题描述了南部非洲现有的耳鼻喉科服务:1.劳动力稀缺和知识不足;2.耳鼻喉科基础设施、设备和药物不足;3.耳鼻喉科疾病筛查、管理和康复不足;4.缺乏远程医疗技术。缺乏远程医疗技术:结论:南部非洲耳鼻喉科医疗服务面临着许多疾病筛查、治疗和康复方面的挑战,包括劳动力、设备和药物的严重短缺。这些挑战阻碍了患者获得耳鼻喉科医疗服务,可通过实施慎重的政策来有效解决,这些政策包括培训更多的劳动力、增加耳鼻喉科设备和药物的资金投入、推广远程医疗以及降低患者的医疗成本。
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引用次数: 0
Two decades of research capacity strengthening and reciprocal learning on sexual and reproductive health in East Africa - a point of (no) return. 加强东非性健康与生殖健康研究能力和相互学习二十年--(不)回头点。
IF 2.6 3区 医学 Q1 Medicine Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-06-03 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2353957
Caroline Frisendahl, Emelie Looft-Trägårdh, Amanda Cleeve, Susan Atuhairwe, Elin C Larsson, Othman Kakaire, Herbert Kayiga, Annette Aronsson, Anne Kihara, Marleen Temmerman, Marie Klingberg Allvin, Josaphat Byamugisha, Kristina Gemzell Danielsson

As the world is facing challenges such as pandemics, climate change, conflicts, and changing political landscapes, the need to secure access to safe and high-quality abortion care is more urgent than ever. On 27th of June 2023, the Swedish government decided to cut funding resources available for developmental research, which has played a fundamental role in the advancement of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) globally, including abortion care. Withdrawal of this funding not only threatens the fulfilment of the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGS) - target 3.7 on ensuring universal access to SRHR and target 5 on gender equality - but also jeopardises two decades of research capacity strengthening. In this article, we describe how the partnerships that we have built over the course of two decades have amounted to numerous publications, doctoral graduates, and important advancements within the field of SRHR in East Africa and beyond.

世界正面临着流行病、气候变化、冲突和不断变化的政治格局等挑战,因此,确保获得安全、高质量的人工流产护理比以往任何时候都更加迫切。2023 年 6 月 27 日,瑞典政府决定削减用于发展研究的资金,而发展研究在促进全球性与生殖健康和权利(SRHR)(包括堕胎护理)方面发挥了重要作用。撤销这笔资金不仅会威胁到联合国可持续发展目标(SDGS)的实现--关于确保普及性与生殖健康和权利的目标 3.7 和关于性别平等的目标 5--还会危及二十年来研究能力的加强。在这篇文章中,我们将介绍二十年来我们建立的合作伙伴关系是如何在东非及其他地区的性健康和生殖健康及权利领域发表大量论文、培养博士毕业生并取得重要进展的。
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引用次数: 0
Global Financing Facility investments for vulnerable populations: content analysis regarding maternal and newborn health and stillbirths in 11 African countries, 2015 to 2019. 全球融资机制对弱势群体的投资:2015 年至 2019 年 11 个非洲国家孕产妇和新生儿健康及死胎的内容分析。
IF 2.2 3区 医学 Q2 PUBLIC, ENVIRONMENTAL & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-07-05 DOI: 10.1080/16549716.2024.2329369
Mary Kinney, Meghan Bruce Kumar, Issa Kaboré, Joël Kiendrébéogo, Peter Waiswa, Joy E Lawn

Background: The Global Financing Facility (GFF) was launched in 2015 to catalyse increased domestic and external financing for reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, adolescent health, and nutrition. Half of the deaths along this continuum are neonatal deaths, stillbirths or maternal deaths; yet these topics receive the least aid financing across the continuum.

Objectives: To conduct a policy content analysis of maternal and newborn health (MNH), including stillbirths, in GFF country planning documents, and assess the mortality burden related to the investment.

Methods: Content analysis was conducted on 24 GFF policy documents, investment cases and project appraisal documents (PADs), from 11 African countries. We used a systematic data extraction approach and applied a framework for analysis considering mindset, measures, and money for MNH interventions and mentions of mortality outcomes. We compared PAD investments to MNH-related deaths by country.

Results: For these 11 countries, USD$1,894 million of new funds were allocated through the PADs, including USD$303 million (16%) from GFF. All documents had strong content on MNH, with particular focus on pregnancy and childbirth interventions. The investment cases commonly included comprehensive results frameworks, and PADs generally had less technical content and fewer indicators. Mortality outcomes were mentioned, especially for maternal. Stillbirths were rarely included as targets. Countries had differing approaches to funding descriptions. PAD allocations are commensurate with the burden.

Conclusions: The GFF country plans present a promising start in addressing MNH. Emphasising links between investments and burden, explicitly including stillbirth, and highlighting high-impact packages, as appropriate, could potentially increase impact.

背景:全球筹资机制(GFF)于 2015 年启动,旨在促进增加用于生殖、孕产妇、新生儿、儿童、青少年健康和营养的国内外资金。在这一过程中,有一半的死亡是新生儿死亡、死产或孕产妇死亡;但在整个过程中,这些主题获得的援助资金最少:对全球森林论坛国家规划文件中的孕产妇和新生儿健康(MNH)(包括死胎)进行政策内容分析,并评估与投资相关的死亡率负担:对来自 11 个非洲国家的 24 份全球森林论坛政策文件、投资案例和项目评估文件(PAD)进行了内容分析。我们采用了一种系统化的数据提取方法,并应用了一个分析框架,该框架考虑了 MNH 干预的思维方式、措施和资金,并提及了死亡率结果。我们比较了各国在 PAD 上的投资和与 MNH 相关的死亡人数:在这 11 个国家中,通过 PAD 分配了 18.94 亿美元的新资金,其中 3.03 亿美元(16%)来自全球筹资框架。所有文件都有关于产妇和新生儿保健的重要内容,尤其侧重于怀孕和分娩干预措施。投资案例通常包括全面的成果框架,而项目发展援助一般技术内容较少,指标也较少。提到了死亡率结果,特别是孕产妇死亡率。死胎很少被列为目标。各国对资金说明采取了不同的方法。PAD 的拨款与负担相称:全球筹资框架国家计划是解决产妇和新生儿保健问题的一个良好开端。强调投资与负担之间的联系,明确将死产包括在内,并酌情突出高影响力的一揽子计划,可能会提高影响力。
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引用次数: 0
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Global Health Action
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